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EBB 427 Application and Technology of Engineering Polymers (Second Half)

Hand lay-up

Dr. Hazizan Md Akil School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering Engineering Campus, USM.

Processing Technology
Introduction Hand Lay-Up Spray Lay-Up Filament Winding Pultrusion Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM) Pre-Preg

Hand Lay-up
Introduction Most common method in producing composites parts using thermosetting resins Especially for large and bulky structures At McDonnell Aircraft, 100% of the aircraft composites are produced by hand lay-up. The primary methods of automation in hand lay-up relate to computer software Software is used to generate flat patterns from the layer surface and the ply boundary Software is also used to find the most efficient nest of cut plies to minimize the scrap

Hand Lay-up
Introduction In the hand lay-up process, fiber reinforcement is manually inserted into a single-sided mold. Resin is forced through the thickness of the fiber mats using hand rollers, and then excess resin is removed using squeegees The part is allowed to cure and then disassembled from the mold Since this process is not typically performed under the influences of heat and pressure, simple equipment and tooling can be employed

Hand Lay-up
Introduction However, this process is very labor intensive, has high cycle times, delivers only fair dimensional tolerances and releases a large amount of volatiles. The nature of the hand lay-up process may also result in parts with inconsistent fiber orientations, that is, the more the reinforcement is handled, the more likely strands will separate from the mat or preform In an open mould of the hand lay-up process, one skin is moulded at a time and in the final step, skins, spars, and core are bonded together Such a sequential process increases the amount of labour required, increases variability between blades, and slows the rate of production.
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Hand Lay-up
Introduction Hand lay-up is a proven process for constructing composite turbine blades and other structures, but the methods limiting volume output and part inconsistencies motivate research into other modes of manufacturing

Hand Lay-up

Hand Lay-up

Hand Lay-up
Advantage Widely used for many years. Simple principles to teach. Low cost tooling, if room-temperature cure resins are used. Wide choice of suppliers and material types. Higher fibre contents, and longer fibres than with spray lay-up.

Hand Lay-up
Disadvantage Resin mixing, laminate resin contents, and laminate quality are very dependent on the skills of laminators. Low resin content laminates cannot usually be achieved without the incorporation of excessive quantities of voids. Health and safety considerations of resins. The lower molecular weights of hand lay-up resins generally means that they have the potential to be more harmful than higher molecular weight products. The lower viscosity of the resins also means that they have an increased tendency to penetrate clothing etc.

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Hand Lay-up
Disadvantage Limiting airborne styrene concentrations to legislated levels from polyesters and vinylesters is becoming increasingly hard without expensive extraction systems. Resins need to be low in viscosity to be workable by hand. This generally compromises their mechanical/thermal properties due to the need for high diluent/styrene levels.

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