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EBB 427 Application and Technology of Engineering Polymers (Second Half

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Thermosetting Adhesive

Dr. Hazizan Md Akil School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering Engineering Campus, USM.

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Thermosetting Adhesives Introduction • Thermosetting adhesives are essentially infusible. polyimides and epoxy resins. 2 . • They are used for high load assemblies and severe service conditions such as heat. insoluble and show good creep resistance. radiation etc • Thermoset adhesives set as a result of the build up of molecular chains to produce a rigid crosslinked structure. cold. • There are many different thermoset adhesives available including phenolic formaldehyde (PF) resins. resorcinol formaldehydes (RF). • They include epoxy resins. polyesters. which are some of the most widely used adhesives. phenolic neoprene.

rivetted alternatives.to purchase and to use. • They are the adhesives most used for structural. • Thermoset Adhesives are polymer resins that are interlocked and are high specification adhesives • Thermoset adhesives are made of large molecular chains to produce a cross linked structure. • Some of the toughened variants provide exceptional properties directly comparable with welded. 3 . than the other adhesive types.Thermosetting Adhesives Introduction • Thermoset adhesives are generally more expensive. load bearing applications.

• The thermoset includes Neoprene and Hypalon. 4 .free and exhibit high tensile and shear strength. • These adhesives rapidly bond a variety of substrates. • They polymerize with moisture and cure in seconds at room temperature. • This can be cured through a free radical mechanism. • Thermoset Adhesives provide extremely durable bonds in harsh environments with superior weathering properties.Thermosetting Adhesives Introduction • They are solvent.

• Adherence becomes difficult when the surface is smooth. • The bonding action varies between the adhesive types and involves either a chemical or mechanical bonding to the surface.Thermosetting Adhesives Introduction • Thermoset Adhesives which bond different materials are also available. • Thermoset Adhesives provide protection against some low frequency waves • Epoxies and anaerobics are thermoset adhesives designed to retain their strength over a wide temperature range 5 .

6 . • Thermoset Adhesives are suitable for energy absorbing applications.Thermosetting Adhesives Introduction • The curing temperature selected must be close to the operating temperature to reduce the effect of the difference in thermal-expansion between materials.

Thermosetting Adhesives Types of thermoset adhesives • Resorcinol resins • Polyesters • Polyimides • Epoxy resins • Epoxy polysulphides • Epoxy silicones • Redux adhesive • Acrylics • Polysulfide • Furan • Fluropolymers 7 .

8 .Thermosetting Adhesives Specifications for thermoset adhesives • Viscosity Viscosity is the measure of a material's resistance to flow. It is expressed in secs. It normally relates to the viscosity of the adhesive. • Curing Time The time required to complete cementing of an adhesive at a certain temperature. The viscosity is measured in centipoises (cP). • Gap Fill Gap fill is the spreading of adhesives over the material without leaving any voids.

Thermal conductivity is expressed in W/mK. It is expressed in percentage (%) 9 .Thermosetting Adhesives Specifications for thermoset adhesives • Thermal Conductivity Thermal conductivity is the measure of the ability of the material of the adhesive for heat transfer. • Elongation Elongation is the increase in length defined as a fraction of the original length of a material when subjected to tension.

It is expressed in kV/in.Thermosetting Adhesives Specifications for thermoset adhesives • Resistivity Resistivity is the physical property of the material which has the ability to resist or oppose the motion of charge through the material and is usually expressed in ohm-cm • Dielectric Strength Dielectric strength is the measure of the ability of the thermoset adhesive to withstand electric stress without failure. • Dielectric Constant • Index of Refraction 10 .

• Index of Refraction Index of refraction is the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in a substance 11 .Thermosetting Adhesives Specifications for thermoset adhesives • Dielectric Constant Dielectric constant is the ratio of the capacitance of a material to the capacitance of air.

Supplied as tapes.Thermosetting Adhesives Specifications for thermoset adhesives Type Resorcinol resins Polyesters (unsaturat ed) Notes Water resistance is very good. High performance adhesives requiring higher curing temperatures and bonding Polyimides pressures (up to 0.7 MPa ). porous materials Glass fibre binder. Usually made to harden by chemical action rather than by the evaporation of solvents and thus cure with little shrinkage. High cost adhesive. Metals 12 . Materials Bonded Wood. They are used to make exterior plywood.

Can be formulated for higher temperatures (180o C).Paste or film . Better flexibility and peel strength but relatively lower peel strength Good temperature characteristics Metals . and Metal. do not produce volatiles during curing. Laminates Epoxy resins Epoxy polysulphi des Epoxy silicones Redux adhesive Trade Name. Glass. have low shrinkage. Therefore they form elastormers.. Aerospace. Automobile. 13 . Single part adhesives require heat for setting or long setting times. Marine applications. Metals. High performance structural adhesives . some extremely strong and durable bonds with plastics most materials in well-designed joints.Thermosetting Adhesives Specifications for thermoset adhesives Epoxy (mostly 2-part) adhesives have good strength and chemical resistance.

Properties of Thermosetting Adhesives Advantages of thermoset adhesives • Possess greater flexibility • Have no stress concentrations • Are insoluble • Have good creep resistance • Have adequate strength • Offer weight reduction • Elegant in appearance 14 .

Properties of Thermosetting Adhesives Disadvantages of thermoset adhesives • Low durability • Techniques for the inspection is limited • Do not remain stable at high temperature • Require time to attain strength after application • Are highly expensive 15 .

Properties of Thermosetting Adhesives Qualities of thermoset adhesives • Durability • Heat resistance • Degree of sticking • Bond strength • Curing time 16 .

painting and woodworking. • Used in the medical industry. and manufacturing paper goods.Properties of Thermosetting Adhesives Applications of thermoset adhesives • Used widely for repairing and manufacturing small objects. labeling. textiles. • Used in construction. particularly in welding or riveting. sealing. 17 . • Used for sizing paper. textile industry.

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