This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
1G: First Generation cellular - analog. 2G: Second Generation cellular - digital cellular including TDMA, CDMA, and GSM systems. Most 2G digital phones are voice only phones, but some offer limited data capability. 2.5G: Enhanced data rate Second Generation - digital cellular systems with data rates of 28kbps 384kbps. 3G: The term 3G refers to third generation wireless networks. These networks offer voice, data transfer, and multimedia content at rates as high as 2 Mbps. GSM: Global System for Mobile communications. GSM is used all over Europe, plus many countries in the Middle East, Asia, Africa, South America, Australia, and North America. GSM's air interface is based on narrowband TDMA technology, where available frequency bands are divided into time slots, with each user having access to one time slot at regular intervals. CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access; also known as IS-95. This is one of the newer digital technologies in use in the US, Canada, Australia, and some southeastern Asian countries (e.g. Hong Kong and South Korea). CDMA differs from GSM and TDMA by its use of spread spectrum techniques for transmitting voice or data over the air. Rather than dividing the radio frequency spectrum into separate user channels by frequency slices or time slots, spread spectrum technology separates users by assigning them digital codes within the same broad spectrum. Advantages of CDMA include higher user capacity and immunity from interference by other signals. Used in either 800 MHz or 1900 MHz frequency bands. 1
Global System For Mobile Communications
What is Group Special Mobile ?
GSM was designed as a future proof standard, able to provide users with a range of capabilities. The evolution began from 1982 when members of 11 telephone companies of the European Telecommunications body CEPT, formed a new standard group. In 1988, after the signing of the GSM MoU by 17 countries the GSM work was transferred to ETSI, a standards organisation. Since then the membership of the GSM MoU has grown to 169 countries (401 Networks) across the World. 3
Global System for Mobile Communications
GSM is capable of operating at 3 frequency bands: 900MHz, 1800 MHz & 1900 MHz. The last 2 are usually known as DCS1800 & PCS1900. Bandwidth: 200kHz, time multiplexing over 8 slots with frequency hopping. Voice Codec: 13 kbit/sec Data bit rates: 9.6 kbits/sec Short Message Service: 160 Characters maximum message length. Requires a SIM Card.
Objectives of GSM
• • • • • • •
A broad offering of Voice & Data Services Compatibility with wireline networks Automatic Roaming & handover Highly efficient use of frequency spectrum Support for different type of mobile terminal equipments Supplier independence Low costs for Infrastructure & terminal equipment
Network & Switching Subsystem
Base Station Subsystem
MS BSC BTS
OMC MS MSC BSC Interfacing with external networks (eg. PSTN) MS EIR
Comprises of the - Mobile Station(MS) - Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) - Base Station Subsystem (BSS)
The term refers to the physical equipment of the user. Comprises of 2 parts • • Hardware and software components relating to the radio interface. SIM Card
Each Mobile equipment has a 15 digit International Mobile Equipment Identity number (IMEI)
Subscriber Identity Module
The SIM Card forms the second part of the MS. The subscriber related information is stored in a non volatile memory of the SIM Card. The permanent data includes the• Mobile Station ISDN Number (MSISDN) • SIM Type • IC Card Identification - SIM Serial Number • SIM Service table • International Mobile Subscriber Identity Number (IMSI) • Personal Identification Number (PIN) • Pin Unlocking Key (PUK) • Authentication Key (Ki)
Subscriber Identity Module
Once the SIM Card is switched on the following dynamic data is updated • • • • • Location Information Ciphering Key for encoding List of Carrier frequencies for cell selection during handover and call setup List of blocked networks Home network search
Base Station Subsystem
The BSS comprises of all radio related functions of the GSM network. Because of the limited transmitter power of the Base Transceiver Station, coverage is provided only within a specific geographical area within the network. Thus radio cells are created & the entire network id distributed into cells. Hence the name Cellular Communications was derived.
Base Station Subsystem
Comprises of the - Base Transceiver Station (BTS) - Base Station Controller (BSC)
Base Station Subsystem
The BTS comprises of the transmitting and receiving facilities, including antennas and all the signalling related to the radio interface. Depending on the type of antenna, the BTS supplies one or several cells. The antenna are separated from each other by an angle of 120 degrees. The BSC is responsible for the management of the radio interface through the BTS, namely for reservation and release of radio channels as well as handover management. It also performs the tasks of Paging and signalling functions. One BSC generally manages several BTSs and is linked via the MSC.
Network and Switching Subsystem
Acts as a gateway between the radio network and other networks like the PSTN etc. Comprises of the - Mobile Switching Center (MSC) - Home Location Register (HLR) - Visitor Location Register (VLR)
Mobile Switching Center
The MSC is a high performance digital switching center that carries out the normal switching tasks and manages the network. Each MSC is usually allocated several BSCs, and in the area assigned to it, carries out the switching between mobile users and other PLMN. It also forms a link between the mobile radio network and the wireline networks. The MSC is responsible for all the signalling required for setting up, terminating and maintaining connections as per the CCSS7 standard (Roaming).
Home Location Register
The HLR is the store for all important information of each mobile subscriber. It stores all information including • Telephone Number • IMEI Number • Equipment type • Subscription basis • Supplementary services •Authentication Key • Location area Identifier
Each mobile subscriber & his related data are registered only once in the HLR, in which all billing and administrative tasks are carried out. There is usually only one HLR in a network.
Visitor Location Register
The VLR manages the subscribers who are currently roaming in the area under control of the MSC. It stores the information transmitted by the responsible HLR for users under its area thus allowing the MSC to establish a connection. The VLR is also responsible for the allocation of the MSRN & TIMSI. Location area update and call setup functions are performed by the HLR & VLR. A special process keeps the VLR updated of the mobile users movement within the MSC area or change of MSC. The VLR avoids frequent interrogation of the HLR.
The functions of the OSS are allocated into 3 areas of responsibilities. - Subscription Management - Network Operation and maintenance - Mobile Equipment Management OSS Comprises of - Operations and Maintenance Center (OMC - S & R) - Authentication Center (AuC) - Equipment Identity Register (EIR)
OSS - Subscription Management
Subscription management is able to authenticate a GSM user from the personal data stored in the HLR and provide him the agreed services. This data provides the call charging basis. Subscriber Data is stored & managed in the HLR; information relating to data security in the AuC. Call Charging: The mobile radio user is charged for services on the basis of call-tickets. These are used for billing irrespective of where the call is made in the network. Billing location can be the MSC where the user is located or the Gateway MSC, where the communication is connected to the external network. HLR stores only call related data. Call billing is handled by the OSS Subscriber management. Tariff data is transmitted between the MSC and the HLR over the signalling link. 19
OSS - OMCS &R
The OMC centrally monitors & controls the network elements and ensures the best possible service quality for a network. The management functions of the OMC include administration of subscribers and equipment, billing, generation of statistical data on state and capacity utilization of network elements. OMCS - Looks after the switch related operation & maintenance OMCR - Looks after the radio network related operation & maintenance.
The AuC contains all the information required to protect the subscriber’s identity, his mobile communication against eavesdropping and his right to use the radio services. Authentication algorithms and encryption codes are stored in the AuC, and strict rules apply for the access to this information.
Equipment Management - EIR
Management of mobile equipment concerns information about owner and equipment identity. It also coordinates the movement of the equipment including roaming, handover and paging. EIR is a central database in which subscriber and equipment numbers are stored. The database contains a white, grey and black list. The White list contains all the valid IMEI numbers, the Black list contains the list of stolen or suspended IMEI numbers and the Grey list contains the list of IMEI’s of malfunctioning equipment that is not receiving any services.
Call Connect Procedure
Network to Mobile
Paging Request Channel Request Immediate Assignment Paging Response Network Authentication Authentication Response Setup Confirmation Connect Connection Acknowledgment
Network to Mobile • Allocation of new TIMSI - ensures that identity of mobile user is kept confidential. • Authentication - to check whether the identity of the mobile user is valid. • Identification - The mobile gets a request from the network to send an identification parameter IMSI or IMEI • IMSI Detach - Removal of IMSI, when SIM is removed from the mobile or mobile is switched off
Mobile to Network • • • Location Update - Updates registration of the location of a mobile by transmitting LAI Periodic Update IMSI Attach - Opposite of Detach, indicating the availability of the mobile to the network.
Call Setup Procedure
PSTN to Mobile
3 VLR 4 8 11 9 10 13 BSS 9 10 13 MSC 7 12 6 5 GMSC 1 PSTN 2 HLR
Call Setup Procedure
Mobile to PSTN
3 1 BSS 7 6 2 MSC
Bearer Services - Packet Data Network service Teleservice - Basic Telephony (Diverts, Barring, Closed User Group) - Emergency Calls - Short Message Service - Point to Point Mobile terminating - Point to Point Mobile originating - Mobile Cell Broadcast - Facsimile
Supplementary Services - CLIP/ CLIR - Call Forwarding - Call Holding - Call Conferencing - Closed User Group - Call Barring Support for Value Added Services Unstructured Supplementary Services Data (USSD) Customized Applications for Mobile network Enhanced Logic (CAMEL)
General Packet Radio Service
1.What is GPRS. 2.To use users specifically need 3.Key network features. 4.Routing 5.Tariff 6.Applications 7.Class of mobile. 8.Configuration
What is General Packet Radio Service? Nonvoice value added service that allows information to be sent and received across a mobile telephone network . Enables data "packets" to be transmitted at high speed, in the same way as on the Internet. What is MMS? Multi media messaging with which we can send images,audio and video clips with text messages.
To use GPRS, users specifically need:
1. a mobile phone or terminal that supports GPRS 2. a subscription to a mobile telephone network that supports GPRS 3. knowledge of how to send and/ or receive GPRS information using their specific model of mobile phone, including software and hardware configuration 4. a destination to send or receive information through GPRS .could be a mobile number or an internet address also
• • Speed : 8 kbps. Immediacy : facilitates instant connections whereby information can be sent or received immediately as the need arises, subject to radio coverage. No dialup modem connection is necessary
Key Network Features
PACKET SWITCHING: GPRS involves
overlaying a packet based air interface on the existing circuit switched GSM network scarce radio resources i.e large numbers of GPRS users can potentially share the same bandwidth and be served from a single cell.
SPECTRUM EFFICIENCY : efficient use of
INTERNET AWARE : enables Mobile Internet
functionality .Services like chat,file transfer,web browsing,email.
Type GPRS GSM Dial-UP ISDN Broadband Uplink (Sending) 14 kbps 9.6-14 kbps 56 kbps 64 kbps 2 Mbps Downlink (Receiving) 28-64 kbps 9.6-14 kbps 56 kbps 64 kbps 2 Mbps
Chat TEXTUAL AND VISUAL INFORMATION : Send maps or graphs. Still images :photographs,greeting cards, presentations. Moving images :video messages ,movie previews,video conferencing. Web browsing Audio : Sending audio clips Internet email : User gets notification once a new mail comes
The class indicates the mobile phone capabilities. Class A A mobile phone can be connected to both GPRS and GSM services simultaneously. Class B Mobile phone can be attached to both GPRS and GSM services, using one service at a time. Class B enables making or receiving a voice call, or sending/receiving an SMS during a GPRS connection. During voice calls or SMS, GPRS services are suspended and then resumed automatically after the call or SMS session has ended. Class C Mobile phone are attached to either GPRS or GSM
Class of Mobile
Name based: User can store and view multiple telephone numbers, emails, URLs and addresses under one name (contact)
- First Name and Last Name replaced Name
Support of low, mid and high tier phonebook
- Fields per contact and number of contacts vary based on tier
Sorting and searching
- Multi-letter dynamic search - Sort by first and last name
- Support of picture and ring tone
Distribution list support (email and messaging) Support for separate view of phone and SIM/USIM contacts/categories Combined view (VF specific)
Enhanced Detail View
- User can scroll through detailed view of the contact form while viewing it
Storing of structured data
- User has a choice to create new contact or edit existing one when saving information from other applications.
Launching pad for several communication application – Calling, messaging, MMS, email and Browser. Sharing of contact via IrDa, Bluetooth, MMS and Email Synchronization of phone memory contacts via SyncML, from inside phonebook 1-touch turbo dial management
- User can assign up to 9 speed dial (key 1 to 9), operator locked
Voice dial and Voice tag management for Speaker dependant call. Birthday notification for both in/out call
User can create a single contact with multiple telephone numbers, emails, URLs and Postal address
User can view tel nos., emails, URLs and postal address by horizontal scrolling
First Name and Last Name Nickname Up to 3 phone numbers 1 e-mail address 1 postal address
First Name and Last Name Nickname Up to 5 phone numbers Up to 2 e-mail addresses 1 postal address 1 URL Birthday
First Name and Last Name Nickname Up to 7 phone numbers Up to 2 e-mail addresses Up to 2 postal addresses Up to 2 URLs Notes Birthday Zodiac
Minimum: 300 contacts Maximum: depends on usage, but no more than 1000
Minimum: 500 contacts Maximum: depends on usage, but no more than 1500 Category, ring tone, picture ID
Minimum: 700 contacts Maximum: depends on usage, but no more than 2000
• Minimum case occurs when every single field in every contact is filled with maximum number of allowed characters • Maximum number of contacts depends on usage, thus legacy definition of maximum number of contacts supported no longer applies. Memory allocation within phonebook is dynamic
Low/mid/high tier (cont…)
Name 1 phone number Name Nickname Main Number (without type) Up to 3 Additional Numbers (with support for types) Up to 2 e-mail addresses Category Maximum: 254 contacts Maximum: 508 contacts
Number of contacts, support of additional phone numbers, categories, and e-mail depends on particular implementation of USIM (standard allows for significant flexibility)
Sorting and searching
User can choose to sort by First Name or Last Name Display Name concept
– Display Name is what is shown in the Summary View – Combination of First/Last or Last/First names is Display Name depending on sort setting – If user entered Nickname, it automatically becomes Display Name – If user did not enter name, TRS defines hierarchy of what is displayed
Search is a multi-letter dynamic jump-to algorithm
– Cursor jumps to closest matching contact dynamically adjusting with each letter – Centered or deleted in the search window – List is not sub-filtered and is only performed on Display Name – Search window only appears when search is invoked – Search can be done within all Summary Views and Pickers
– – – – – – –
Acts as grouping mechanism
Maximum of 10 categories can be stored on phone memory General is mandatory and other default categories are Business, Personal, VIP For 3G, if USIM supports categories, up to 10 are supported Category can be pre-set or user defined Category stored on the phone can have a picture ID and ring tone associated with it Individual contact or distribution list can only belong to one category Categories are managed through “Manage Contacts” -> “Edit Categories”
Fields of categories
Name, members, Ringer ID, Picture ID
E-mail and message distribution lists are supported Used for outgoing communication only Each distribution list can be associated with a category For sort and search purposes, distribution lists are treated as contacts Distribution lists are not synchronized, copied, or shared
Separate view for phone and SIM/USIM
Phone memory summary view
Picture and text list
One line summary view
– – –
The feature is flex controlled. Setup option
Option is seen if Combined View is flexed ON By default, it is Off Selecting Phone & SIM Card option enables the combined view.
Filter by Email and category
– Filtering is possible either via * and # from summary view or via “Filter” menu User can filter by existing categories and contacts with e-mail. Filters are not sticky. Every time phonebook is entered, default view corresponds to the storage setting
• Single, multiple, or all contacts can be selected for copying
• Contact is treated as a whole for copying purposes. Separate pieces of information associated with a contact cannot be copied individually. • Copying from phone to SIM – First Name and Last Name are concatenated according to sort setting
Copy (phone memory <-> SIM/USIM)
– Multiple numbers associated with the same contact on the phone are copied to SIM as separate contacts with the same name • Copying from phone to USIM – First Name and Last Name are concatenated – Multiple contacts with the same name are created only when contact stored on phone has more phone numbers or e-mails than USIM supports • Copying from SIM to phone – The name is copied into either first name or last name, depending on sort setting – Phone numbers with the same name are collected under one number on the phone • Copying from USIM to phone – Types assigned to phone numbers on USIM are transferred to phone when possible – A new contact is always created on the phone, even if other contacts with the same name exist 51
- No picture
Additional options than summary view
- Deleting individual entries of the contact
Detailed View (Cont…)
Detailed view of Distribution lists
Detailed view of category
– – –
Structure data interface
Add/Replace/Modify Stores on NVM/SIM based on Storage device setting Supports storing following information Phone Numbers (Calling, SMS/MMS/EMAIL, Browser) Email (SMS/MMS/Email) URL (Browser) Picture (Camera, Pictures) Ring Tones (Audio)
Launching of Calling/Messaging/MMS/Browser
• Phonebook as a launch pad for other communication application
– Telephony, messaging, e-mail, browser, post card app and camera can be launched directly from phonebook – Single or multiple contacts can be selected to initiate communications – User can act on highlighted piece of information in summary or detailed view
Sharing of Contact
• Contacts can be sent and received via MMS, E-mail, Bluetooth and IrDa
- Contacts are exchanged as vCards
- Support for single vCard exhange (receive and send) - Incoming vCards are always stored as new contact, even if another contact with same Display Name exists - Selection (pickers) of contacts is optimized to guide the user through the process and provide information as to what is stored in each contact
• Synchronization via SyncML is supported.
• Synchronization can be launched from phonebook • Only contacts stored on phone memory can be synchronized
1-touch Dial (speed dial)
Help to quickly access a phone number from idle screen and initiate a voice call to that number. It can be achieved by long key press.
One-touch speed dial assignments shall be limited to 9 (keys 1 through 9)
Operator Locked, Operator Flexed and User Defined
- Voice tag is stored in the phonebook
Voice Dial (cont…)
– – –
Edit Voice Dial Erase Erase All
Incoming and outgoing call notification
Picture caller ID for incoming Call (if picture is assigned to a contact or to the category it belongs)
Birthday notification for in/out call
Video telephony shall only by available on 3G handsets. Any telephone number can be made VT enabled VT call can be originated by the options or by a dedicated key.
Status Icon (Memory Full)
Inbox Folder (Messages Full)
Status Icon (Memory Full) Inbox Folder (Messages Full) ATTENTION! This is a special situation when there are messages available in the SIM card. In this case, there were 25 messages available in the SIM card (999 + 25 messages).
Feature ID Name
This flex bit is used to determine if Single composer to create SMS and MMS messages is available. When the value is ON, single composition for SMS and MMS-SMIL will follow. If OFF, then flow sequence as defined for 10427 will be followed and different composersdetermines Number of text characters This value shall be invoked.
DL_DB_FEATURE_ID_U C_SMS_TO_MMS_CHAR needed to transition from SMS to MMS message in S_BOUNDARY Unified Composer. Range will be 1-765 and the DL_DB_FEATURE_ID_S default value will bereport for outgoing SMS shall be Sending of Delivery 450 MS_READ_RECEIPT_AV AILABLE
flex controlled and based on the flex value message type shall be decided to be SMS or MMS. If Delivery Report for SMS is Flexed ON then message will be DL_DB_FEATURE_ID_M SMS and of it is flexed an outgoing SMS shall become Sending if Subject in off then message will be flex SG_SMS_EMS_SUBJECT MMS. controlled and based on the flex value message type _AVAILABLE shall be decided to be SMS or MMS. If Subject for SMS is Flexed ON then message will be SMS and if it is DL_DB_FEATURE_ID_S flexed off then message will become MMS. flex Sending a SMS to an email address shall be MS_EMAIL_AVAILABLE controlled and based on the flex value message type shall be decided to be SMS or MMS. If Sending SMS to email is Flexed ON then message will be SMS and65 it if is flexed off then message will become MMS.
Testing Teams – Getting Started
Sanity Team/Build Integration Team System Test Team Field Test Team Interoperability Team