• Response to action of external force which distorts the body • Demands placed on people by their work or personal environment. As without demands people would become dull, unproductive, static • Irritating or annoying state of mind including anything that makes angry, tense, frustrated, miserable etc • Mentally or emotionally disruptive or disquietening influence • Non-specific response of body to any demands made upon it (Selye) • Disorder or breakdown of coping mechanism (Doctors) • Adaptive response to any external situation that results in physical, psychological &/or behavioural deviations of organizational participants (Luthans) • Response of action to external force which distorts the body Dr 1 •10/17/08 Conditions arising fromAshutosh N Misal interactions of people and their

FOLLOWING CHANGES HAPPEN ↑ Adrenalin is WHEN YOU ARE released in body FACE STRESS SITUATION – WHEN YOU SEE A TIGER IN FRONT OF YOU dilate to allow more light in ↑ Pupils of eyes ↑ Mouth goes dry ↑ Digestions stops temporarily and more blood is supplied to brain and muscles ↑ Neck and shoulder muscles gets tensed up and prepare for action ↑ Breathing quickens and allows more oxygen to your lungs and muscles ↑ Heart beats increase ↑ Blood pressure rises ↑ Perspiration increases to cool down the body ↑ Liver releases glucose to provide burst of energy for muscles ↑ Spleen releases stored blood cells and chemicals into blood stream to thicken the blood
10/17/08 Dr Ashutosh N Misal 2

Mechanism of Stress –
Hans Selye

• General Adaptation Syndrome
• GAS has

3 Stages

–Alarm –Resistance –Exhaustion
10/17/08 Dr Ashutosh N Misal 3

Types of Stress
• Based on Effect • Based on – Positive: Eustress Levels – Negative: – Extrinsic Distress (Organizatio – Indifference: nal) Neustress – Intrinsic • Based on Intensity (Individual) – Life threatening • Based on – Non-life threatening Predictability • Based on – Predictable Avoidability 10/17/08 Dr Ashutosh N Misal

– Non-


Mild Stress is required.. Too much of stress affects
Health Emotional (occupational stability hazards) Ability to Well being empathize Routine Ability to listen Performance Physical stamina Expectation of life Tendency to err Relationship Proneness to 10/17/08 5 Perceptions Dr Ashutosh N Misalaccidents

Factors affecting Stress
Constitution Nutrition state Family Age background Physical and Upbringing mental fitness (switch on and Education off) Past experience Health habit Present No of life events circumstances requiring Future adaptations expectations Personality Mental attitude, 10/17/08 Dr Ashutosh N Misal 6 make up values, beliefs

Types of Personalities

Type A

Motivating • Not concerned about Walks fast, eats fast, time talks fast • Patient Impatient • Does not brag Does two things at a time • Plays for fun not to Can’t cope up with win leisure time • Relaxes without guilt Obsessed with • Has no pressing numbers deadlines Measures success by • Mild mannered quantity Aggressive • Never in a hurry Competitive • Cooperative Constantly feels under • Highly quality time pressure 10/17/08 Dr Ashutosh N Misal 7 conscious Highly ambitious

Type B

Types of Personalities
• Greek Classification:
– – – – Choleric: Irritable and react with anger Melancholic: depressed and give up Sanguine: optimistic and react well Phlegmatic: calm and try to avoid or evade situation

• Carl Jung:
– Extrovert – Introvert – Ambivert

• William Sheldon:

(physique with temperament)

• Rotter:

– Endomorphic: overweight, relaxed and sociable and react well to stressors – Messomorphic: strong, muscular, energetic, aggressive, courageous, react well – Ectomorphic: long thin body, large brain, sensitive nervous system, restrained and fearful, manage stress poorly
(on Locus of Control)

– Internals – Externals

Symptoms of Stress

– Physical Signs

 Muscle spasm Heavy drinking  Irregular eating  Nervous habits habits  Often short of  Weight fluctuation breath  Sleeping disorder  Excessive sweating  Feeling constantly  Indigestion, ulcers tired and under  Allergies pressure  Abnormal menstrual  Sedentary life style cycle  High/ low blood  Dryness of throat pressure Dr Ashutosh N Misal 9  10/17/08 Frequent cold/

Symptoms of Stress

– Social Signs

Close friend/ relative  Difficulty in decision died recently making  Recently got  Feeling of married/ divorced bitterness/ intolerance/  Major arguments jealously towards with partner other people  Difficulty in asking assertively what you  Feeling of boredomness/ want withdrawal from  Difficulty in saying society “no” to  Unhappiness about inappropriate 10/17/08 Dr Ashutosh N Misal financial situation/ 10 request

Symptoms of Stress

– Emotional Signs

Rapid mood swing  Getting angry easily  Suffering from anxiety attacks  Frequent depression/ feeling of despair


Dr Ashutosh N Misal

Feeling nightmares  Feeling restless  Emotionally numb  Frequent bursting into tears  Being hypochondriac


Symptoms of Stress

– Mental Signs

Doing several Often feeling things at a time bored  Frequent lapses  Becoming of memory  Difficulty in frustrated concentrating standing in  Feeling confused queues  Contemplating  Feeling of being suicide always behind the  Having phobias schedule  Disliking about  Feeling that your body people don’t
10/17/08 Dr Ashutosh N Misal 12

Symptoms of Stress

– Spiritual Signs

Feeling of aloneness  Feeling of emptiness/ hopelessness  Difficulty in forgiving  Feeling of lost direction in life


Dr Ashutosh N Misal

Having a feeling of guilt  Practicing self abuse  Feeling of hostility towards others  Feeling of ‘life lost meaning


Coping with Stress Individual Level Techniques

Physical Exercise: Relaxation

yoga, health care, obesity, fitness gyms, jogging, exercises etc


meditation, kundalini, breathing, self hypnosis etc world/ give me a theme

reiki, control,

Behavioural self control:

change the

How person looks at the stressors is more important: life is a comedy and
tragedy social support, confidence 10/17/08 Dr Ashutosh N 14 building, counseling etc Misal


Coping with Stress - Organizational Level

 Emotional climatic control: participation in decision making, open door policy etc  Supporting organizational climate/ culture  Elimination of overload and under load; proper task planning  Reduce conflict and clarify organizational goals  Redefining employee roles and designation  Job enrichment  Planning and development of career, futuristic planning  Assistance and counseling to stressed employees  Participation, OD, training to increase morale, job satisfaction, competence  Effective communication and communication channels  Programs for job stress prevention: proper selection, 10/17/08 Dr Ashutosh N Misal 15 placement, training, job design etc

Managing Stress - TOI
• Have a good laugh • Quit smoking • Adjust sleeping • Relax time • Get a pet • Eat more garlic • Exercise • Drink tea • Eat more fruit • Drink more red wine and vegetable • Regular self • Get a good job (responsible) examination • Have regular • Have a happy smear/ prostate marriage test • Be optimistic • Monitor your bowel 10/17/08 17:10 Dr Ashutosh • Eat dark Misal behaviour


Managing Stress – Reader’s Digest

• Do nothing • Laugh out loud • Tune in • Think happy
10/17/08 17:10 Dr Ashutosh Misal 17

4 dimensions

of Stress Management

Spiritual Dimension

Prayer Meditation Forgiveness Faith
10/17/08 Dr Ashutosh N Misal 18

4 dimensions

of Stress Management

Mental Dimension

Visual Imagery Autogenic Training Positive Self-talk A peaceful Trip
10/17/08 Dr Ashutosh N Misal 19

4 dimensions

of Stress Management

Emotional Dimension


Your Support System Touch Humour and Laughter Mood
Dr Ashutosh N Misal


4 dimensions

of Stress Management

Physical Dimension
Immune System Nutrition Deep Breathing Anchoring Massage Exercise Physical Examination Progressive Rrelaxation A Good Night’s Sleep
10/17/08 Dr Ashutosh N Misal 21

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