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Seminar topic on


Sub:- electrometallurgy corrosion Prepared by :- Arjun R prajapati Year :- 2011-12 Roll no. :- 919


What is Oxidation ?

Oxidation is the process of losing electrons. The metal atoms release electrons (are oxidized) and become positive ions. The site at which this occurs is known as the anode. Scale formation, tarnishing, & dry corrosion may be used to describe this phenomena.

Oxidation reactions:- (e.g. anodizing.)

(1) H2So4 ----> 2H+ + SO4--

(2) 2H+ + 2e- ----> H2

(3) SO4-- + 2H2O ----> H2SO4 + O-2 (4) Al ----> Al3+ + 3e(5) Al3+ + O-2----> Al2o3


Most metals are oxidized by the oxygen in air. Electrons leap from the metal to the oxygen molecules. The negative oxygen ions which are thus formed penetrate into the metal, causing the growth of an oxide surface. As the oxide layer grows the rate of electron transfer decreases. The corrosion stops and the metal is made passive. The oxidation process may continue, however, if the electrons succeed in entering the metal through cracks or impurities in the metal or if the oxide layer is dissolved.

Sometimes oxidation is not such a bad thing, as in the formation of super-durable anodized aluminum. Other times, oxidation can be destructive, such as the rusting of an automobile or the spoiling of fresh fruit. We often used the words oxidation and rust interchangeably. When oxidation occurs in copper, on the other hand, the result is a greenish coating called copper oxide. When it involves oxygen, the process of oxidation depends on the amount of oxygen present in the air and the nature of the material it touches.

Oxidation is the most important corrosion reaction.

In most In most industrial environments, oxidation is often one of the reactions, irrespective of the predominant mode of corrosion.

the oxidation reaction to develop a protective oxide layer to resist corrosion attack.
Oxidation is the major problem in the chemical industries, metal production, and fabrication.

Low temperature oxidation:

Metals exposed to air Form a surface

high temperature oxidation:

Material degradation at

compound Depending upon the contamination of air Because of metal is not stable as such in the environment Tends to undergo reaction for stable form

higher temperature than ambient temperature When exposed to corrosive environment Temperature depend on the metal and type of environment to be used

Need of HTO:
How fast metal react with environment at high temperature;
What is the mechanism of reaction?

How corrosive is the environment;

How to control the reaction or how to protect

metal from degradation; How to select material for such high temperature application.

stages of oxidation phase:

When clean metal surface is exposed to oxygen gas the initial oxidation phase can be subdivided into three stages. Adsorption of the gas on the metal surface.
Individual separated oxide nuclei are formed on the

surface and lead to formation of continuous film on the metal surface. Reaction proceed by solid state diffusion of one or both of reactants through the oxide film.

The oxide film separates the metal from the gas and the reaction mechanism changes completely. no. of reactions considered to account for many temperature dependant oxidation phenomena observed. For thin films the driving force for these transport of reactants due to electric fields in or across the film whereas for thick films the oxidation kinetic determined by the chemical potential gradient across the scale.

Oxidation kinetics :In general reaction mechanism is a function of Time surface characteristic of sample temperature The most important parameter of the metal oxidation from the engineering point of view is the reaction rate, and is usually measured as weight gain per unit area.

Linear rate law:

The oxide reaction product is generally retained on the Metal surface and so the rate of oxidation is usually measured and expressed as weight gain per unit area. The simplest empirical relationship is the linear law. W =kLt Where W = weight gain per unit area t = time kL= linear rate constant linear oxidation is the characteristic of metal for which a porous or cracked scale is formed so that the scale does not represent a diffusion barrier between the two reactants.

sodium & potassium oxidize linearly and have oxide to metal volume ratio less than one. While it is about 2.5 times than in the case of tantalum and niobium.

The linear rate constant represents the rate at which some molecular dissociation or some other reaction step at the interface is controlling the total reaction rate.

Role of diffusion in HTO

High temperature oxidation is basically the reaction of a metal with oxygen to form an oxide
Thin layer regime is that in which oxidation occurs

at low temperatures. Under these conditions, diffusion is generally not considered. absorption of oxygen results in creating a field which is enough to cause of the migration of cation from the metal surface.

Such a process is restricted to only a few monolayers. At high temperatures, the phenomenon of monolayer formation is insignificant. The initial layer form too fast to record its sequence of formation and the whole process of oxidation depends upon how this monolayer grows to form thick layer.

Oxidation prevention : conditioning metal by coating the metal. by alloying the metal. by retarding air-metal contact. conditioning corrosive environment. by removal of oxygen. by corrosion inhibitors. electrochemical control.

Advantages of oxidation:

Good corrosion resistance s/c film.(specially in the case of anodizing ) As a decorative purpose. Surface hardening Electrical insulation Thermal insulation