1

CHAPTER 2
DC AND AC METER
2
OBJECTIVES
 At the end of this chapter, students
should be able to:
1. Explain the basic contruction and
working principle of D’Arsonval meter
movement.
2. Perfom basic electronic circuit analysis
for D’Arsonval meter family.
3. Identify the difference electronic circuit
design for measurement meters using
D’Arsonval meter principle.
3
CHAPTER OUTLINE
1. D’Arsonval Meter Movement
2. DC Ammeter
3. DC Voltmeter
4. Multi-range Voltmeter
6. Ammeter Insertion Effects
7. Ohmmeter

8. Multi-range Ohmmeter
9. Multimeter
10. AC Voltmeter using half-
wave rectifier
Effects
12. Wheatstone Bridge
13. Kelvin Bridge
14. Bridge-controlled Circuit
Introduction
 A meter is any device built to accurately detect and
display an electrical quantity in a form readable by a
human being.
 The display mechanism of a meter is often referred to as
a movement, borrowing from its mechanical nature to
move a pointer along a scale so that a measured value
 Most mechanical movements are based on the principle
of electromagnetism: that electric current through a
conductor produces a magnetic field perpendicular to the
axis of electron flow. Thus, the greater the electric
current, the stronger the magnetic field produced.

4
 Practical electromagnetic meter movements can be
made now where a pivoting wire coil is suspended in a
strong magnetic field, shielded from the majority of
outside influences.
 Such an instrument design is generally known as a
permanent-magnet moving coil, or PMMC movement .

Introduction
Basic diagram of meter
6
2.1: D’ARSORVAL METER
MOVEMENT
 Also called Permanent-Magnet Moving Coil
(PMMC).
 Based on the moving-coil galvanometer
constructed by Jacques d’ Arsonval in 1881.
 Can be used to indicate the value of DC and
AC quantity.
 Basic construction of modern PMMC can be
seen in Figure 2.1.

7
Pointer
Permanent magnet
Coil
Core
Figure 2.1: Modern D’Arsonval Movement
Air Gap
Spring
N
S
8
2.1.1:Operation of D’Arsonval
Meter
 Figure 2.1 shows a permanent horse-shoe magnet with
soft iron pole pieces attached to it. Between the pole
pieces is a cylinder of soft iron which serves to provide a
uniform magnetic field in the air gap between the pole
pieces and the cylindrical core.
 The coil is wound on a light metal frame and is mounted
so that it can rotate freely in the air gap.
 When current flows through the coil, the core will rotate.
 The pointer attached to the coil moves over a graduated
scale and indicates the angular deflection of the coil
 Amount of rotation (angular deflection) is proportional to
the amount of current flows through the coil.
 The meter requires low current (~50uA) for a full scale
deflection, thus consumes very low power (25-200 uw).
 Its accuracy is about 2% -5% of full scale deflection
9
2.2: DC AMMETER
 The PMMC galvanometer constitutes the
basic movement of a dc ammeter.
 The coil winding of a basic movement is
small and light, so it can carry only very
small currents.
 A low value resistor (shunt resistor) is used
in DC ammeter to measure large current.
 Basic DC ammeter:
10
Rsh
+
_
_
+
Rm
D’Arsonval
Movement
I
Ish
Im
Figure 2.2: Basic DC Ammeter
11
 Referring to Fig. 2.2:
Rm = internal resistance of the
movement
Rsh = shunt resistance
Ish =shunt current
Im = full scale deflection current
of the movement
I = full scale current of the
ammeter + shunt (i.e. total
current)
12
m
m m
sh
m sh
m m sh sh
I I
R I
R
I I I
R I R I
÷
=
÷ =
=
13
EXAMPLE 3.1
A 1mA meter movement with an
internal resistance of 100Ω is to be
converted into a 0-100 mA. Calculate
the value of shunt resistance
required. (ans: 1.01Ω)
14
2.2.1: MULTIRANGE AMMETER
The range of the dc ammeter is extended
by a number of shunts, selected by a
range switch.
The resistors is placed in parallel to give
different current ranges.
Switch S (multiposition switch) protects
the meter movement from being damage
during range changing. How?
This type of meter are used for ranges up
to 50 A.

the highest current range, then decrease the range
until good upscale reading is obtained.
 The resistance used for the various ranges are of
very high precision value.
 Increase cost of the meter.

15
2.2.1: MULTIRANGE AMMETER
Multiposition Switch:
 Have low contact resistance and high current carrying
capacity, since its contacts are in series with low
resistance shunts.
 ‘make before break’ type switch is used for range
changing.
 This switch protects the meter movement from being
damaged without a shunt during range changing.
 If ordinary switch is used for range changing, the meter
won’t have any shunt in parallel while the range is being
changed and hence full current will passes through the
meter, damaging the movement.

16
2.2.1: MULTIRANGE AMMETER
Multiposition Switch:
 ‘make before break’ type switch is designed so that when
the switch position is changed, it will automatically
makes contact with the next terminal (range) before
breaking contact with the previous terminal.
 Therefore the meter movement never left unprotected.

17
2.2.1: MULTIRANGE AMMETER
18
R1 R2 R3 R4
+
_
+
_
Rm
D’Arsonval
Movement
Figure 2.3: Multirange Ammeter
S
19
2.2.2: ARYTON SHUNT OR UNIVERSAL
SHUNT
Aryton shunt eliminates the possibility of having
the meter in the circuit without a shunt.
Reduce cost
Position of the switch:
a)‘1’: Ra parallel with series combination of Rb, Rc
and the meter movement. Current through the
shunt is more than the current through the meter
movement, thereby protecting the meter movement
and reducing its sensitivity.
b)‘2’: Ra and Rb in parallel with the series
combination of Rc and the meter movement. The
current through the meter is more than the current
through the shunt resistance.
c)‘3’: Ra, Rb and Rc in parallel with the meter.
Maximum current flows through the meter
movement and very little through the shunt. This
will increase the sensitivity.
20
Rc
Rb
Ra
Rm
D’Arsonval
Meter
+
_
3
1
2
+
_
Figure 2.4: Aryton Shunt
21
REQUIREMENT OF A SHUNT
1) Minimum Thermo Dielectric Voltage Drop
Soldering of joint should not cause a voltage drop.
2) Solderability
Resistance of different sizes and values must be soldered with
minimum change in value.
Precautions:
- never connect an ammeter across a source of e.m.f.
because of its low resistance would draw a high current and
destroy the movement. Always connect an ammeter in
- observe the correct polarity. Reverse polarity causes the
meter to deflect against the mechanical stopper, which may
damage the pointer.
- when using the multirange meter, first use the highest
current range.

22
2.3: BASIC METER AS A DC
VOLTMETER
To use the basic meter as a dc voltmeter, must
know the amount of current (I
fsd
) required to deflect
the basic meter to full scale.
The sensitivity is based on the fact that the full
scale current should results whenever a certain
amount of resistance is present in the meter circuit
for each voltage applied.

fsd
I
S
1
=
23
EXAMPLE 2.3
Calculate the sensitivity of a 200 uA meter
movement which is to be used as a dc voltmeter.

Solution:

V k
uA I
S
fsd
/ 5
200
1 1
O = = =
24
2.4: A DC VOLTMETER
A basic D’Arsonval movement can be converted
into a DC voltmeter by adding a series resistor
(multiplier) as shown in Figure 2.3.

Im =full scale deflection current of the movement (Ifsd)
Rm=internal resistance of the movement
Rs =multiplier resistance
V =full range voltage of the instrument

Rs
Im
Rm
Multiplier
V
+
_
Figure 2.5: Basic DC Voltmeter
 The function of the multiplier is to limit the current
through the movement so that the current does not
exceed the full scale deflection value.
 A dc voltmeter ,measures the potential difference
between two points in a dc circuit.
25
26
 From the circuit of Figure 2.5:

Therefore,

m
m
s
m
m m
m m
s
m s m
R
I
V
R
R
I
V
I
R I V
R
R R I V
÷ =
÷ =
÷
=
+ = ) (
27
EXAMPLE 2.4
A basic D’ Arsonval movement with a full-scale
deflection of 50 uA and internal resistance of 500Ω
is used as a DC voltmeter. Determine the value of
the multiplier resistance needed to measure a
voltage range of 0-10V.

Solution:

O = O ÷ = ÷ = k
uA
V
R
I
V
R
m
m
s
5 . 199 500
50
10
28
 Sensitivity and voltmeter range also can be used to
calculate the multiplier resistance, Rs of a DC
voltmeter.
Rs=(S x Range) - Rm
 From example 2.4:
Im= 50uA, Rm=500Ω, Range=10V
Sensitivity,

So, Rs = (20kΩ/V x 10V) – 500 Ω
= 199.5 kΩ

V k
uA I
S
m
/ 20
50
1 1
O = = =
29
EXERCISE
Calculate the value of full scale deflection current
and multiplier resistance on the 50 V range of a dc
voltmeter that has a sensitivity of 5 kO/V with an
internal resistance of 100 O.

30
2.5: MULTI-RANGE VOLTMETER
 A DC voltmeter can be converted into a multirange
voltmeter by connecting a number of resistors
(multipliers) in series with the meter movement
using multiposition switch.
 Figure 2.6 shows a multirange voltmeter using
three position switch

Figure 2.6: Multirange voltmeter
R1
1kohm
R2
1kohm
R3
1kohm
+
-
31
 Figure 2.7 shows a practical arrangement of the multiplier
resistors of a multirange voltmeter.
 In this arrangement the multipliers are connected in a series
string and the range selector selects the appropriate amount
of resistance required in series with the movement.
 Advantages: all multiplier resistances except the lowest range
R
4
have the standard value and also very precise in
tolerances.
 R
4
is the only special resistor which has to be specially
manufactured to meet the circuit requirements.

Figure 2.7: Multipliers connected in series string
R1 R2 R3 R4
+
_
V1
V2
V3
V4
Rm
Im
Lowest
range
32
 When a voltmeter is used to measure the voltage
across a circuit component, the voltmeter circuit
itself is in parallel with the circuit component.
 Total resistance will decrease, so the voltage
across component will also decrease. This is called
high sensitivity voltmeter.
EXAMPLE 2.6
Figure 2.9 shows a simple series circuit of R1 and R2
connected to a 100 Vdc source. If the voltage across R2 is to
be measured by voltmeters having
a) a sensitivity of 1000 O/V
b) a sensitivity of 20000 O/V
find which voltmeter will read the accurate value of voltage
across R2. Both meters are used on the 50 V range.
33
V1
100V
R1
10kohm
R2
10kohm
Figure 2.9
34
2.7 AMMETER INSERTION EFFECTS
 Inserting Ammeter in a circuit always increases the
resistance of the circuit and, thus always reduces
the current in the circuit. The expected current:
(2-4)

 Placing the meter in series with R1 causes the
current to reduce to a value equal to:
(2-5)
1
R
V
I
y
=
m
x
R R
V
I
+
=
1
35
2.7 AMMETER INSERTION EFFECTS
 Dividing equation (2-5) by (2-4) yields:

(2-6)

 The Ammeter insertion error is given by :

Insertion Error (2-7)
m y
x
R R
R
I
I
+
=
1
1
100 1 X
Iy
Ix
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
36
2.8 OHMMETER
 The purpose of an Ohmmeter is to measure resistance.
 Resistance reading is indicated trough a mechanical meter
movement which operates on electric current.
 Thus, Ohmmeter must have an internal source of voltage to
create current necessary to operate the movement.
 Ohmmeter also have an appropriate ranging resistors to allow
just the right amount of current.
 A simple Ohmmeter comprises of a battery and a meter
movement, is as figure below:

Figure 2.12: Simple ohmmeter
SERIES TYPE OHMMETER
 A D’Arsonval movement is connected in series with a
resistance R
1
and a battery which is connected to a pair of
terminal A and B, across which the unknown resistance is
connected.
 The current flowing through meter movements depends on the
magnitude of the unknown resistance.
 Therefore, the meter deflection is directly proportional to the
value of the unknown resistance, R
x
.

37
Figure 2.13: Series ohmmeter
SERIES TYPE OHMMETER
Calibration of the Series type Ohmmeter
 To mark ‘0’ reading, terminal A and B are shorted
 Rx=0Ω.
 Max current flows in the circuit.
 R2 is adjusted until the movement indicates full scale
current.
 The pointer assign at 0 Ω.
 To mark ‘∞’ reading, terminal A and B are opened
 Rx= ∞
 No current flows in the circuit
 No deflection of the pointer- assign at ∞Ω.

38
39
2.9 MULTI-RANGE OHMMETER
 Another method of achieving flexibility of a measuring
instrument is by designing it to be in multi-range.
R1
1kohm
50%
R2
R3
1kohm
R4
1kohm
R5
1kohm
V1
1.5V
x y
28 k
R x 1
R x 10
R x 100
R
m
= 2 kO
I
m
= 50 µA
Figure 2.14: Multirange ohmmeter
40
2.10 MULTIMETER
 Multimeter consists of an ammeter, voltmeter and
ohmmeter in one unit.
 It has a function switch to connect the appropriate
circuit to the D’Arsonval movement.
41
2.10 MULTIMETER
The following precautions should be observed:
and damage.
 Switch off power supply during measuring
resistance.
 Renew ohmmeter batteries frequently to ensure
accuracy of the resistance scale.
 Recalibrate the instrument at frequent intervals.
 Protect the instrument from dust, moist, fumes and
heat.
42
2.11 AC VOLTMETER USING HALF-
WAVE RECTIFIER

Peak voltage,

Average voltage,

Since the diode conducts only during the positive half cycle as
shown in Fig 4.18(in text book), the average voltage is given by:
E
ave
/ 2=4.5V

V V E
rms p
14 . 14 414 . 1 10 = × =
V E E E
p dc ave
99 . 8 636 . 0 = × = =
43
2.11 AC VOLTMETER USING HALF-
WAVE RECTIFIER
 Therefore, the pointer will deflect for a full scale if 10 Vdc is
applied and only 4.5 V (45% of full scale) when a 10 Vrms
sinusoidal signal is applied.
 The DC voltmeter sensitivity is given by:

 For the circuit in Figure 2.15, the AC voltmeter sensitivity is
given by:

 This means that an AC voltmeter is not as sensitive as a DC
voltmeter.

V k
mA I
S
m
dc
/ 1
1
1 1
O = = =
V k S S
dc ac
/ 45 . 0 45 . 0 O = =
44
2.11 AC VOLTMETER USING FULL-
WAVE RECTIFIER

 Peak value:
E
p
=1.414 E
rms
=1.414 10= 14.14V
p

 Average value:
E
avg
=0.636 E
peak

=14.14 0.636=9V

Figure 2.17: AC voltmeter using fullwave rectifier
45
2.11 AC VOLTMETER USING FULL-
WAVE RECTIFIER
 Therefore, 10Vrms voltage is equal to 9V DC for full scale
deflection. The pointer will deflect 90% of full scale. The
sensitivity becomes:

 The multiplier resistor

dc ac
S S 9 . 0 =
m ac s
R range S R ÷ × =

OBJECTIVES
 At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
1. Explain the basic contruction and working principle of D’Arsonval meter movement. 2. Perfom basic electronic circuit analysis for D’Arsonval meter family. 3. Identify the difference electronic circuit design for measurement meters using D’Arsonval meter principle.
2

CHAPTER OUTLINE
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. D’Arsonval Meter Movement DC Ammeter DC Voltmeter Multi-range Voltmeter Voltmeter Loading Effects Ammeter Insertion Effects Ohmmeter 8. Multi-range Ohmmeter 9. Multimeter 10. AC Voltmeter using halfwave rectifier 11. AC Voltmeter Loading Effects 12. Wheatstone Bridge 13. Kelvin Bridge 14. Bridge-controlled Circuit

3

Introduction
 A meter is any device built to accurately detect and display an electrical quantity in a form readable by a human being.  The display mechanism of a meter is often referred to as a movement, borrowing from its mechanical nature to move a pointer along a scale so that a measured value may be read.  Most mechanical movements are based on the principle of electromagnetism: that electric current through a conductor produces a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of electron flow. Thus, the greater the electric current, the stronger the magnetic field produced.

4

shielded from the majority of outside influences.  Such an instrument design is generally known as a permanent-magnet moving coil. Basic diagram of meter . or PMMC movement .Introduction  Practical electromagnetic meter movements can be made now where a pivoting wire coil is suspended in a strong magnetic field.

 Based on the moving-coil galvanometer constructed by Jacques d’ Arsonval in 1881.  Can be used to indicate the value of DC and AC quantity.1.1: D’ARSORVAL METER MOVEMENT  Also called Permanent-Magnet Moving Coil (PMMC).  Basic construction of modern PMMC can be seen in Figure 2. 6 .2.

1: Modern D’Arsonval Movement 7 .Pointer Permanent magnet Core N S Coil Air Gap Spring Figure 2.

1:Operation of D’Arsonval Meter  Figure 2. thus consumes very low power (25-200 uw).  The coil is wound on a light metal frame and is mounted so that it can rotate freely in the air gap.1 shows a permanent horse-shoe magnet with soft iron pole pieces attached to it. the core will rotate.  The meter requires low current (~50uA) for a full scale deflection.2. 8  Its accuracy is about 2% -5% of full scale deflection . Between the pole pieces is a cylinder of soft iron which serves to provide a uniform magnetic field in the air gap between the pole pieces and the cylindrical core.  The pointer attached to the coil moves over a graduated scale and indicates the angular deflection of the coil  Amount of rotation (angular deflection) is proportional to the amount of current flows through the coil.1.  When current flows through the coil.

 A low value resistor (shunt resistor) is used in DC ammeter to measure large current.2: DC AMMETER  The PMMC galvanometer constitutes the basic movement of a dc ammeter.  Basic DC ammeter: 9 .2.  The coil winding of a basic movement is small and light. so it can carry only very small currents.

+ I Ish Rsh Im + _ Rm _ D’Arsonval Movement Figure 2.2: Basic DC Ammeter 10 .

total current) 11 .2: Rm = internal resistance of the movement Rsh = shunt resistance Ish =shunt current Im = full scale deflection current of the movement I = full scale current of the ammeter + shunt (i. 2. Referring to Fig.e.

I sh Rsh  I m Rm I sh  I  I m I m Rm Rsh  I  Im 12 .

EXAMPLE 3.1 A 1mA meter movement with an internal resistance of 100Ω is to be converted into a 0-100 mA. (ans: 1. Calculate the value of shunt resistance required.01Ω) 13 .

Switch S (multiposition switch) protects the meter movement from being damage during range changing.1: MULTIRANGE AMMETER The 14 range of the dc ammeter is extended by a number of shunts. How? This type of meter are used for ranges up to 50 A. selected by a range switch.2.2. . The resistors is placed in parallel to give different current ranges.

 15 .1: MULTIRANGE AMMETER When using this type of meter. start with selecting the highest current range.  The resistance used for the various ranges are of very high precision value. then decrease the range until good upscale reading is obtained.  Increase cost of the meter.2.2.

2. the meter won’t have any shunt in parallel while the range is being changed and hence full current will passes through the meter.  If ordinary switch is used for range changing.1: MULTIRANGE AMMETER Multiposition Switch:  Have low contact resistance and high current carrying capacity.  ‘make before break’ type switch is used for range changing. 16 . damaging the movement.2. since its contacts are in series with low resistance shunts.  This switch protects the meter movement from being damaged without a shunt during range changing.

17 .2.1: MULTIRANGE AMMETER Multiposition Switch:  ‘make before break’ type switch is designed so that when the switch position is changed. it will automatically makes contact with the next terminal (range) before breaking contact with the previous terminal.  Therefore the meter movement never left unprotected.2.

+ + R1 R2 R3 R4 Rm _ D’Arsonval Movement S _ Figure 2.3: Multirange Ammeter 18 .

thereby protecting the meter movement and reducing its sensitivity. . Maximum current flows through the meter movement and very little through the shunt. Reduce cost Position of the switch: a)‘1’: Ra parallel with series combination of Rb. b)‘2’: Ra and Rb in parallel with the series combination of Rc and the meter movement.2. Current through the shunt is more than the current through the meter movement.2. The current through the meter is more than the current through the shunt resistance. This will increase the sensitivity. Rb and Rc in parallel with the meter. Rc and the meter movement. c)‘3’: Ra.2: ARYTON SHUNT OR UNIVERSAL SHUNT Aryton 19 shunt eliminates the possibility of having the meter in the circuit without a shunt.

4: Aryton Shunt 20 .Rc 3 + 1 2 Rb + Rm _ D’Arsonval Meter Ra _ Figure 2.

when using the multirange meter.never connect an ammeter across a source of e.REQUIREMENT OF A SHUNT 1) Minimum Thermo Dielectric Voltage Drop Soldering of joint should not cause a voltage drop. Precautions: . which may damage the pointer. Always connect an ammeter in series with a load . 21 .m. because of its low resistance would draw a high current and destroy the movement. Reverse polarity causes the meter to deflect against the mechanical stopper.f.observe the correct polarity. 2) Solderability Resistance of different sizes and values must be soldered with minimum change in value. . first use the highest current range.

The sensitivity is based on the fact that the full scale current should results whenever a certain amount of resistance is present in the meter circuit for each voltage applied. S 22 1 I fsd .3: BASIC METER AS A DC VOLTMETER To use the basic meter as a dc voltmeter. must know the amount of current (Ifsd) required to deflect the basic meter to full scale.2.

Solution: S 1 I fsd 1   5k / V 200 uA 23 .3 Calculate the sensitivity of a 200 uA meter movement which is to be used as a dc voltmeter.EXAMPLE 2.

2.3.5: Basic DC Voltmeter 24 Rs Multiplier Im Rm Im =full scale deflection current of the movement (Ifsd) Rm=internal resistance of the movement Rs =multiplier resistance V =full range voltage of the instrument .4: A DC VOLTMETER A basic D’Arsonval movement can be converted into a DC voltmeter by adding a series resistor (multiplier) as shown in Figure 2. + V _ Figure 2.

 A dc voltmeter .The function of the multiplier is to limit the current through the movement so that the current does not exceed the full scale deflection value.measures the potential difference between two points in a dc circuit.  25 .

V Rs   Rm Im 26 .5: V  I m ( Rs  Rm ) V  I m Rm V Rs    Rm Im Im Therefore. From the circuit of Figure 2.

Determine the value of the multiplier resistance needed to measure a voltage range of 0-10V.5k Im 50 uA 27 . Solution: V 10V Rs   Rm   500   199 .EXAMPLE 2.4 A basic D’ Arsonval movement with a full-scale deflection of 50 uA and internal resistance of 500Ω is used as a DC voltmeter.

Rs of a DC voltmeter. Rm=500Ω.5 kΩ 28 .4: Im= 50uA. Rs=(S x Range) . Rs = (20kΩ/V x 10V) – 500 Ω = 199.Sensitivity and voltmeter range also can be used to calculate the multiplier resistance.  1 1 S   20 k / V I m 50 uA So.Rm  From example 2. Range=10V Sensitivity.

EXERCISE Calculate the value of full scale deflection current and multiplier resistance on the 50 V range of a dc voltmeter that has a sensitivity of 5 k/V with an internal resistance of 100 . 29 .

5: MULTI-RANGE VOLTMETER A DC voltmeter can be converted into a multirange voltmeter by connecting a number of resistors (multipliers) in series with the meter movement using multiposition switch.2.  Figure 2.6: Multirange voltmeter .6 shows a multirange voltmeter using three position switch  R1 1kohm R2 1kohm R3 1kohm + 30 Figure 2.

R1 R2 R3 R4 V2 V3 Rm Lowest range Im V1 + _ V4 Figure 2.7 shows a practical arrangement of the multiplier resistors of a multirange voltmeter.    Figure 2. R4 is the only special resistor which has to be specially manufactured to meet the circuit requirements. Advantages: all multiplier resistances except the lowest range R4 have the standard value and also very precise in tolerances. In this arrangement the multipliers are connected in a series string and the range selector selects the appropriate amount of resistance required in series with the movement.7: Multipliers connected in series string 31 .

the voltmeter circuit itself is in parallel with the circuit component. so the voltage across component will also decrease.2.6: VOLTMETER LOADING EFFECTS When a voltmeter is used to measure the voltage across a circuit component.  How about ammeter??  32 .  The voltmeter loading can be reduced by using a high sensitivity voltmeter.  Total resistance will decrease.  The resulting error is called a loading error. This is called voltmeter loading.

9 shows a simple series circuit of R1 and R2 connected to a 100 Vdc source.9 .EXAMPLE 2.6 Figure 2. If the voltage across R2 is to be measured by voltmeters having a sensitivity of 1000 /V a sensitivity of 20000 /V find which voltmeter will read the accurate value of voltage across R2. Both meters are used on the 50 V range. a) b) R1 V1 100V 10kohm R2 10kohm 33 Figure 2.

7 AMMETER INSERTION EFFECTS  Inserting Ammeter in a circuit always increases the resistance of the circuit and.2. thus always reduces the current in the circuit. The expected current: (2-4) V Iy   Placing the meter in series with R1 causes the current to reduce to a value equal to: (2-5) R1 Ix V  R1  Rm 34 .

2.7 AMMETER INSERTION EFFECTS  Dividing equation (2-5) by (2-4) yields: Ix R1  Iy R1  Rm  (2-6) The Ammeter insertion error is given by : Insertion Error  Ix   X 100  1   Iy    (2-7) 35 .

12: Simple ohmmeter 36 . Thus. Ohmmeter must have an internal source of voltage to create current necessary to operate the movement.2. Resistance reading is indicated trough a mechanical meter movement which operates on electric current. Ohmmeter also have an appropriate ranging resistors to allow just the right amount of current.8 OHMMETER      The purpose of an Ohmmeter is to measure resistance. is as figure below: Figure 2. A simple Ohmmeter comprises of a battery and a meter movement.

13: Series ohmmeter . Rx. across which the unknown resistance is connected. Therefore. The current flowing through meter movements depends on the magnitude of the unknown resistance.SERIES TYPE OHMMETER    A D’Arsonval movement is connected in series with a resistance R1 and a battery which is connected to a pair of terminal A and B. 37 Figure 2. the meter deflection is directly proportional to the value of the unknown resistance.

terminal A and B are opened  Rx= ∞  No current flows in the circuit  No deflection of the pointer.  To mark ‘∞’ reading. terminal A and B are shorted  Rx=0Ω.assign at ∞Ω.SERIES TYPE OHMMETER Calibration of the Series type Ohmmeter  To mark ‘0’ reading. 38 .  The pointer assign at 0 Ω.  Max current flows in the circuit.  R2 is adjusted until the movement indicates full scale current.

5V x y 39 Figure 2.9 MULTI-RANGE OHMMETER  Another method of achieving flexibility of a measuring instrument is by designing it to be in multi-range. Rm = 2 k R1 1kohm R2 50% Im = 50 A Rx1 28 k R3 1kohm R4 R x 10 1kohm R5 R x 100 1kohm V1 1.2.14: Multirange ohmmeter .

10 MULTIMETER Multimeter consists of an ammeter.2.  It has a function switch to connect the appropriate circuit to the D’Arsonval movement. voltmeter and ohmmeter in one unit.  40 .

 Switch off power supply during measuring resistance.  Recalibrate the instrument at frequent intervals.  Protect the instrument from dust. moist.2.10 MULTIMETER The following precautions should be observed:  Start with the highest range and move down the range successfully to prevent meter overloading and damage. 41 .  Renew ohmmeter batteries frequently to ensure accuracy of the resistance scale. fumes and heat.

2.414  14 . E p  10Vrms  1. the average voltage is given by: Eave / 2=4.636  E p  8.99V Since the diode conducts only during the positive half cycle as shown in Fig 4.14V Average voltage. Eave  Edc  0.18(in text book).11 AC VOLTMETER USING HALFWAVE RECTIFIER Peak voltage.5V 42 .

43 .11 AC VOLTMETER USING HALFWAVE RECTIFIER   Therefore.2.5 V (45% of full scale) when a 10 Vrms sinusoidal signal is applied. the AC voltmeter sensitivity is given by: S ac  0.45 S dc  0. The DC voltmeter sensitivity is given by: 1 1 S dc    1k / V I m 1mA  For the circuit in Figure 2.45 k / V  This means that an AC voltmeter is not as sensitive as a DC voltmeter.15. the pointer will deflect for a full scale if 10 Vdc is applied and only 4.

636 Epeak =14.17: AC voltmeter using fullwave rectifier  Peak value: Ep=1.636=9V 44 .414 10= 14.14Vp  Average value: Eavg=0.11 AC VOLTMETER USING FULLWAVE RECTIFIER Figure 2.414 Erms=1.14 0.2.

10Vrms voltage is equal to 9V DC for full scale deflection. The pointer will deflect 90% of full scale.2.9 S dc  The multiplier resistor Rs  S ac  range  Rm 45 .11 AC VOLTMETER USING FULLWAVE RECTIFIER  Therefore. The sensitivity becomes: S ac  0.

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