HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY

Anita Ocampo-So, MD, FPSP, DPBA, MHA Professor

GOALS
1.

2. 3.

To understand the important functions of the various organ systems To acquire the ability to problem solving and critical thinking To discern the value of laboratory equipment and procedures as diagnostic aids

GOALS
1.

To develop the attitude and habit essential to the practice of medicine and continuing medical education
i. ii. iii. iv.

Sensitivity to colleagues, society, and patient Sensitivity to difference Sensitivity to responsibility to CME Integrity

PHYSIOLOGY
Physiology

stated broadly and simply is the study of how living organisms work
It

deals with the functions of living beings and the Integration on how the different organ systems work together to accomplish complex tasks

PHYSIOLOGY Claude Bernard
“After carrying out an analysis of phenomena, we must always reconstruct our physiological synthesis so as to see the joint action of all the parts we have isolated.”

PHYSIOLOGY and LIFE
Physiology

deals with the functions of living things thus it deals with life itself
Life

is the interplay of the organism to its environment It explains the physical and chemical factors that are responsible for the origin, development and progression of

ATTRIBUTES OF THE HUMAN BODY
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Organization Irritability Contractility Nutrition Respiration Excretion Metabolism and Growth Reproduction

HUMAN BODY
1.

Solid component
 

Cell Tissues Organs Systems

- master tissues - vegetative tissues

 

2.

Liquid component

2 Major fluid compartments

FLUID COMPARTMENTS
ECF
7.4-7.45 308 mOsm/L Na+, Ca++ Cl14L 1/3 of TBF ISF – 11L Plasma – 3L Internal Environment pH Osmolarit y Cations Anions Volume

ICF
7.35-7.4 308 mOsm/L K+, Mg++ PO428L 2/3 of TBF

HOMEOSTASIS

The maintenance of the body in a stse of relative constancy in the internal environment CONTROL SYSTEM – works on
1. 2. 3.

Cellular level Organismal level Throughout the entire body

CHARACTERISTICS
 

 

Reflex in nature Operates on a feedback mechanism, mostly (-); rarely (+) Amplification or Gain Oscillation – driving, waxing, damped

CELL and its FUNCTIONS

Cells, like the human body has
1. 2. 3. 4.

Division of labor Specialization Mutual interaction Centralized control

Cell – basic living unit of the body

PROTOPLASM
The different substances that make up the cell. It is composed of fluid medium – principal 2. Water - Major cations and anions 3. Electrolytes Next to water, most -Phospholipids and cholesterol abundant 4. Proteins -Triglycerides and natural fats - 2 types 5. Lipids - Little structural a.Structural function 6. Carbohydrates

PHYSICAL STRUCTURE of the CELL
Contains

highly organized physical structures called Organelles
Covered

with a membrane are the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, lysosomes, and Golgi apparatus

CELL MEMBRANE
 

It envelopes the cell It is composed mostly of
 

Proteins – 55% Lipids – 42%
Phospholipids – 25% Cholesterol – 13% Other Lipids – 4%

Carbohydrates – 3%

CELL MEMBRANE
1.
b.

Lipid Membrane
Basic structure is a bilayer Phospholipid part
1.

Hydrophilic part
-

Water soluble Consists of the head group Phosphate portion Fat soluble Consists of the 2 chain group Fatty acyl portion

2.

Hydrophobic part
-

CELL MEMBRANE
Phospholipid Bilayer
Primarily

responsible for the passive permeability properties of the membrane Choline containing
lecithin

(phosphatidylcholine) Sphingomyelin
Aminophospholipids
Phosphatidylserine Phosphatidylethanolamine

CELL MEMBRANE

Others
  

Phosphatidylglycerol Phosphatidylinositol cardiolipin

Cholesterol Glycolipids

LIPID BILAYER
Features  It is fluid and not solid so portions of the membrane can flow literally from one point to another  Substances dissolved or floating in the lipid bilayer diffuse to all areas of the cell membrane  Lipid soluble substances easily cross the lipid bilayer  Water soluble substances do not dissolve in the lipid bilayer; they cross the membrane through water-filled channels, pores, or carriers

2 MEMBRANE PROTEINS
 

Mostly Glycoproteins Fibronectin – integrins
2 types of Proteins 2. Integral proteins 3. Peripheral proteins

MEMBRANE PROTEINS
Functions 2. Anchor 3. Pumps 4. Carriers 5. Ion channels 6. Receptors 7. Enzymes 8. Antibody processing

MEMBRANE CARBOHYDRATES
They

are referred to as the cell Glycocalyx In combination with lipids – glycolipids With proteins - glycoproteins

MEMBRANE CARBOHYDRATES
Functions  Bring (-) charge to the cell  Attachment of one cell to the other  Act as receptor substances for binding hormones  Immune reactions or antigens

CYTOPLASM and its ORGANELLES

Cytosol is the clear fluid of the cytoplasm where the particles are dispersed It contains mainly dissolved proteins, electrolytes and glucose, secretory granules and the organelles
1.

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
a. b.

Granular ER Agranular ER

2.

Golgi Apparatus

ORGANELLES
1. 2.

Peroxisomes Mitochondria
Other structures include: b. Filaments
• •

13 tubulin protofilaments Myosin I, II, MTOCs α,β,δ tubulins Kinesia Dynein

c.

Tubules
∀ • •

d.

nucleus

INTERCELLULAR CONNECTIONS
1.

Tight Junctions
 

Tight Leaky

2.

Gap Junctions

CELLULAR TRANSPORT SYSTEM

Transport across but NOT through Membranes
1.

Endocytosis
    

Energy requiring Receptor-ligand complex Sample:cholesterol & LDL receptors V-SNARES and T-SNARES 2 forms: pinocytosis phagocytosis

2.

Exocytosis

CELLULAR TRANSPORT SYSTEM
A.

Cellular Transport through Membranes
1.

Diffusion
  

No energy needed Downhill 2 pathways
 

Through intermolecular intertices Through channels or transport proteins

RATE OF DIFFUSION
Determined by: 2. Amount of substance available 3. Velocity of kinetic motion 4. Range of diffusion – distance and time 5. Member of openings in the membrane

DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT
Diffusion Coefficient = D Proportional to the speed with which the diffusing molecule can move in the surrounding medium
 Size

of molecule

Small

molecule 1/(MW1/2) Larger molecule 1/(MW1/3) Spherical molecule
 Viscosity

of the medium

Stokes – Einstein Equation D= KT / 6πrη Fick’s Law of Diffusion J = (-) DA (∆c/ ∆x)

 

DIFFUSION PERMEABILITY of the C ELLULAR MEMBRANE
Permeable to lipid-soluble molecules Impermeable to water-soluble molecule

Ions are also relatively insoluble in lipid solvents; diffusion is through protein channels:
a. b. c.

Ion specific Allows small ions only Others – diameter, shape, charge Voltage difference

Ion channels are controlled by:
a.

CELLULAR TRANSPORT THROUGH MEMBRANE
Osmosis
 Semi-permeable

membrane  Osmotic pressure  Van’t Hoff’s Law of O.P. π = RT (φic) Isoosmotic Solutions
Hypoosmotic Hyperosmotic

PREDICTORS OF VOLUME CHANGES

The steady-state volume of the cell is determined only by the concentration of impermeant solutes in the ECF Permeant solutes cause only transient changes in cell volume The greater the permeabilty of the membranes to the permeant solute, the more rapid the time course

TRANSPORT THROUGH MEMBRANES
Protein-Mediated Transport Properties  More rapid transport  Shows saturation kinetics  Mediating protein has chemical specificity  Structurally related molecules may compete for transport  Transport may be inhibited by compounds that are not structurally related

In the form of carrier proteins or

TRANSPORT THROUGH MEMBRANES
Facilitated Transport System  Movement of solutes from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration with the use of transporters  No energy required  Can’t move substances against a concentration gradient  They act to equalize concentrations of the transported substance on the 2 sides of the membrane  Show saturation kinetics  Phloretin inhibits sugar uptake while insulin stimulates it

ACTIVE TRANSPORT
 

With the use of Transporters With the use of channels
a. b.

Voltage Ligand-gated Primary Secondary
 

Types:
1. 2.

Cotransport – symport Countertransport - antiport

OTHER MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROCESSES
1.

Ion-transporting ATPases
3 Major classes
1. 2. 3.

P-type V-type F-type

Ca++ transport
Ca++ ATPase Calmodulin

Na+-Ca++ exchanger

OTHER MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROCESSES
     

Na+-H+ exchanger Anion exchanger Na+,K+,Cl- cotransport Facilitated Transport of Glucose Amino Acid Transport ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters

Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR) Multiple Drug Resistance (MDR) Transporter

TRANSPORT ACROSS EPITHELIA
 

 

Epithelia are polarized Transport properties differ from one side to the other side of membrane With tight and leaky junctions 2 types of pathways
1. 2.

Transcellular Paracellular

Thank You And Good Morning!

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