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GBUS 3323

Lecture One

Assignment

Homework Sets – 500 pts

Final Case Analysis – 250 pts (due week 5).

Participation - 50 pts

4 Quizzes – 200 pts

Late Work – 10% off per day late.

www.kyleswhite.com – kwhite@okwu.edu

H: 918-331-0129 W: 800-468-6292 ext.289

We will complete Case 31 during Week 4

Scripture

another. Instead make up your mind not to

put an obstacle or a stumbling block in your

brother’s way. (Romans 14:13)

Degree of Problem Definition

Exploratory Research Descriptive Research Causal

Research

(Unaware of Problem) (Aware of Problem) (Problem

Clearly Defined)

possible situation

“Our sales are declining and “What kind of people are buying

“Will buyers purchase more of

we don’t know why.” our product? Who buys our our products in

a new package?

competitor’s product?”

“Would people be interested “Which of two

advertising

in our new product idea?” “What features do buyers prefer

Why Define?

campaigns is more effective?”

in our product?”

Why Measure?

Three categories of business research……

Exploratory Research

• Initial research conducted to clarify and

define the nature of a problem

• Does not provide conclusive evidence

• Subsequent research expected

Descriptive Research

• Describes characteristics of a population or

phenomenon

• Some understanding of the nature of the

problem

Descriptive Research Example

• Weight Watchers average customer

• Woman about 40 years old

• Household income of about $50,000

• At least some college education

• Trying to juggle children and a job

Causal Research

• Conducted to identify cause and effect

relationships

Identifying Causality

• A causal relationship is impossible to prove.

• Evidence of causality:

– 1. The appropriate causal order of events

– 2. Concomitant variation--two phenomena

vary together

– 3. An absence of alternative plausible

explanations

Stages of the Research Process

Problem Discovery Discovery and

and Definition Definition

Research and so on

Design Conclusions and

Report

Sampling

Data Processing

and Analysis

Data

Gathering

Problem Discovery And

Definition

• First step

• Problem, opportunity, or monitor operations

• Discovery before definition

• Problem means management problem

Hypothesis

• A statement

• that can be refuted

• by empirical data

If you do not know where you are going,

any road will take you there.

Exploratory Research Techniques

Two Examples

• Secondary data (historical data)

– Previously collected

– Census of population

– Literature survey

• Pilot study

– A number of diverse techniques

Research Design

• Master plan

• Framework for action

• Specifies methods and procedures

Basic Research Methods

• Surveys

• Experiments

• Secondary data

• Observation

Selecting a Sample

of a larger population.

• Who is to be sampled?

• How large a sample? POPULATION

be selected?

Research Proposal

• A written statement of the research design

that includes a statement explaining the

purpose of the study.

• Detailed outline of procedures associated

with a particular methodology

RESEARCH PROGRAM

What is the Shape?

In the nine-dot square (shown in the

Textbook) connect all nine dots with no

more than four straight lines without lifting

the pencil from the paper.

Problem Definition

• The indication of a specific business

decision area that will be clarified by

answering some research questions.

Ascertain the Decision Maker’s

Objectives

• Decision makers’ objectives

• Managerial goals expressed in measurable

terms.

22

The Iceberg Principle

part of many business problems is neither

visible to nor understood by managers.

Understand the Background of

the Problem

• Exercising judgment

• Situation analysis - The informal gathering

of background information to familiarize

researchers or managers with the decision

area.

24

Isolate and Identify the Problems,

Not the Symptoms

• Symptoms can be confusing

25

Symptoms Can Be Confusing

Twenty-year-old neighborhood swimming

association:

• Membership has been declining for years.

• New water park -residents prefer the

expensive water park????

• Demographic changes: Children have

grown up

Problem Definition

Organization Symptoms Based on Symptom True Problem

neighborhood declining for years. residents prefer the Children in this 20-

swimming New water park with expensive water year-old neighborhood

association in a wave pool and water park and have have grown up. Older

major city. slides moved into negative image of residents no longer

town a few years ago. swimming pool. swim anywhere.

What Language Is Written on

This Stone Found by

Archaeologists?

TOTI

EMUL

ESTO

Determine the Unit of Analysis

• Individuals, households, organizations, etc.

• In many studies, the family rather than the

individual is the appropriate unit of

analysis.

29

Determine the Relevant Variable

• Anything that may assume different

numerical values

30

Types of Variables

• Categorical

• Continuous

• Dependent

• Independent

Basic Questions -

Problem Definition

• What is the purpose of the study?

• How much is already known?

• Is additional background information necessary?

• What is to be measured? How?

• Can the data be made available?

• Should research be conducted?

• Can a hypothesis be formulated?

Basic Questions -

Basic Research Design

• What types of questions need to be

answered?

• Are descriptive or causal findings required?

• What is the source of the data?

Basic Questions -

Basic Research Design

• Can objective answers be obtained by

asking people?

• How quickly is the information needed?

• How should survey questions be worded?

• How should experimental manipulations be

made?

Basic Questions -

Selection of Sample

• Who or what is the source of the data?

• Can the target population be identified?

• Is a sample necessary?

• How accurate must the sample be?

• Is a probability sample necessary?

• Is a national sample necessary?

• How large a sample is necessary?

• How will the sample be selected?

Basic Questions -

Data Gathering

• Who will gather the data?

• How long will data gathering take?

• How much supervision is needed?

• What operational procedures need to be

followed?

Basic Questions -

Data Analysis

• Will standardized editing and coding

procedures be used?

• How will the data be categorized?

• What statistical software will be used?

• What is the nature of the data?

• What questions need to be answered?

• How many variables are to be investigated

simultaneously?

• Performance criteria for evaluation?

Basic Questions -

Type of Report

• Who will read the report?

• Are managerial recommendations

requested?

• How many presentations are required?

• What will be the format of the written

report?

Basic Questions -

Overall Evaluation

• How much will the study cost?

• Is the time frame acceptable?

• Is outside help needed?

• Will this research design attain the stated

research objectives?

• When should the research be scheduled to

begin?

Anticipating Outcomes

• Dummy tables

• Representations of the actual tables that will

be in the findings section of the final report;

used to gain a better understanding of what

the actual outcomes of the research will be.

What does Statistics Mean?

• Descriptive statistics

– Number of people

– Trends in employment

– Data

• Inferential statistics

– Make an inference about a population from a

sample

Population Parameter Versus

Sample Statistics

Population Parameter

• Variables in a population

• Measured characteristics of a population

• Greek lower-case letters as notation

Sample Statistics

• Variables in a sample

• Measures computed from data

• English letters for notation

Making Data Usable

• Frequency distributions

• Proportions

• Central tendency

– Mean

– Median

– Mode

• Measures of dispersion

Frequency Distribution of

Deposits

Frequency (number of

people making deposits

Amount in each range)

$3,000 - $4,999 530

$5,000 - $9,999 562

$10,000 - $14,999 718

$15,000 or more 811

3,120

Percentage Distribution of

Amounts of Deposits

Amount

Percent

less than $3,000 16

$3,000 - $4,999 17

$5,000 - $9,999 18

$10,000 - $14,999 23

$15,000 or more 26

100

Probability Distribution of

Amounts of Deposits

Amount Probability

less than $3,000

.16

$3,000 - $4,999

.17

$5,000 - $9,999

.18

$10,000 - $14,999

.23

$15,000 or more

.26

Measures of Central Tendency

• Mean - arithmetic average

– µ, Population; X , sample

• Median - midpoint of the distribution

• Mode - the value that occurs most often

Population Mean

ΣX

µ=

i

N

Sample Mean

Σ Xi

X=

n

Measures of Dispersion

• The range

• Standard deviation

The Range

as a Measure of Spread

• The range is the distance between the smallest

and the largest value in the set.

• Range = largest value – smallest value

Deviation Scores

value and the mean:

d x x

i = i −

Low Dispersion Verses High

Dispersion

5

Low Dispersion

Frequency

Value on Variable

Low Dispersion Verses High

Dispersion

5

Frequency

4 High dispersion

Value on Variable

The Variance

Population

σ 2

Sample

2

S

Variance

Σ( X − X ) 2

S =

2

n −1

Variance

• The variance is given in squared units

• The standard deviation is the square root of

variance:

Sample Standard Deviation

Σ ( Xi − X )

S= n−1

2

The Normal Distribution

• Normal curve

• Bell shaped

• Almost all of its values are within plus or

minus 3 standard deviations

• I.Q. is an example

Normal Distribution

MEAN

Normal Distribution

2.14%

2.14%

Normal Curve: IQ Example

Standardized Normal Distribution

• Mean identifies highest point

• Infinite number of cases - a continuous

distribution

Standard Normal Curve

• The curve is bell-shaped or symmetrical

• About 68% of the observations will fall

within 1 standard deviation of the mean

• About 95% of the observations will fall

within approximately 2 (1.96) standard

deviations of the mean

• Almost all of the observations will fall

within 3 standard deviations of the mean

A Standardized Normal Curve

-2 -1 0 1 2 z

The Standardized Normal is the

Distribution of Z

–z +z

Standardized Scores

x−µ

z=

σ

Z= Value-Mean/Standard Deviation

Standardized Values

• Used to compare an individual value to the

population mean in units of the standard

x−µ

deviation

z=

σ

Standard Error of the Mean

• Standard deviation of the sampling

distribution

Standard Error of the Mean

σ

Sx =

n

Distribution Mean Standard

Deviation

Population µ σ

Sample S

X

Sampling µX SX

Parameter Estimates

• Point estimates

• Confidence interval estimates

Confidence Interval

SMALL SAMPLING ERROR = Z cl S X

E = Z cl S X

µ=X ±E

Estimating the Standard Error of

the Mean

S

Sx =

n

S

µ = X ± Z cl

n

Questions for Chapter 17

Descriptive Analysis

• The transformation of raw data into a form

that will make them easy to understand and

interpret; rearranging, ordering, and

manipulating data to generate descriptive

information

Type of Type of

Measurement descriptive analysis

Frequency table

Two Proportion (percentage)

categories

Category proportions

More than

(percentages)

two categories

Mode

Type of Type of

Measurement descriptive analysis

Median

Type of Type of

Measurement descriptive analysis

Type of Type of

Measurement descriptive analysis

Index numbers

Ratio Geometric mean

Harmonic mean

Tabulation

• Tabulation - Orderly arrangement of data in

a table or other summary format

• Frequency table

• Percentages

Frequency Table

• The arrangement of statistical data in a row-

and-column format that exhibits the count

of responses or observations for each

category assigned to a variable

Central Tendency

Measure of

Central Measure of

Type of Scale Tendency Dispersion

Ordinal Median Percentile

Interval or ratio Mean Standard deviation

Cross-Tabulation

categories, or classes, thus facilitating

comparisons; a joint frequency distribution

of observations on two or more sets of

variables

• Contingency table- The results of a cross-

tabulation of two variables, such as survey

questions

Cross-Tabulation

• Analyze data by groups or categories

• Compare differences

• Contingency table

• Percentage cross-tabulations

Base

(in a row or column) used as a basis for

computing percentages

Charts and Graphs

• Pie charts

• Line graphs

• Bar charts

– Vertical

– Horizontal

Line Graph

Bar Graph

90

80

70

60

50 East

40 West

30 North

20

10

0

1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr

WebSurveyor Bar Chart

How did you find your last job?

213 print ad

Temporary agency 1.5 % 179 Online recruitment site

112 Placement firm

18 Temporary agency

print ad 18.3 %

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