Lecture 9, IICT

WAN Technology
Physical and Data Link Layer

M Tanvir Irfan
mtirfan13@yahoo.com
To the memory of Moslehuddin Bhai You still live in my heart
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What is WAN?
 Basically, WAN is a networking technology. Its full name is Wide Area Network.  WAN spans a large geographical area, often a country or even a continent.  Example: the Internet  WAN consists of a large number of computers. Each computer is called Host.  Hosts are connected by subnet.  As you already know, a subnet consists of 2 elements – 1. Transmission lines (circuits/ M Tanvir Irfan channels/ trunks) and 2. Switching elements

What is WAN?

Can you find the hosts, routers and subnet in the follow Diagram? [You need spectacles if you can’t find ]
A simple overview of WAN subnet Host Host

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WAN Standards
A WAN standard usually gives a description of WAN physical layer and WAN data link layer. A number of organizations have given their standards:  ITU–T – International Telecommunication Union – Telecommunication Standardization Sector

ISO – International Organization for Standardization IETF – Internet Engineering Task Force EIA – Electronic Industries Association
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 

WAN Physical Layer
WAN Physical Layer protocols describe how to provide electrical, mechanical, operational and functional connections for WAN services.

The WAN physical layer describes the interface between  Data Terminal Equipment (DTE)  Data Communicating Equipment (DCE)

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WAN Physical Layer: DTE & DCE
Data Terminal Equipment (DTE)
Device at the user end of a user-network interface that serves as a data source, destination, or both.  Examples: computers, printers, faxes

Data Communicating Equipment (DCE)
Device that helps DTE (user computer) to connect to the network. DCE provides a physical connection to the network  DCE transmits and receives data in the form of an analog or digital signal through a network  Examples: Modems and Interface Cards

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WAN Physical Layer: DTE & DCE
Communication through DTE and DCE DTE (your computer) wants to get connected to the WAN (the Internet) by using DCE (modem).  DCE (modem) takes data generated by DTE(computer), converts them to an appropriate signal and sends that signal to another DCE through the physical (telecom) link.  The second DCE (modem) takes the signal off the line, convert it to a form usable by its DTE (computer)  To make the communication possible, both the M Tanvir Irfan sending and the receiving DCEs must use the

You didn’t understand so far if you can’t answer these questions:
1. True/False: WAN spreads over a large geographical area. 2. True/False: WAN = Wiring And Networking 3. Real Life Example: Mr. T. I. connects to the Internet using a US Robotics 56 Kbps modem with his HP notebook computer. Identify the following objects:  WAN:  DTE:  DCE:
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WAN Data Link Layer
 WAN Data link Layer protocols describe how frames are

transmitted in the Data Link Layer.  Several common Data Link Layer standards [only for reference]:  High Level Data Link Control (HDLC)
         Frame Relay Point to Point Protocol (PPP) Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN) Simple Data Link Control Protocol (SDLC) We will study The star-marked Serial Line Interface Protocol (SLIP) topics Link Access Procedure Balance (LAPB) Link Access Procedure D-channel (LAPD) Link Access Procedure Frame (LAPF) Tanvir Irfan Asynchronous Transfer MMode (ATM)

WAN Data Link Layer: PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)
 IETF took the initiative to design PPP as the data link layer protocol for point-to-point lines. Their goal was to use it as the official Internet Standard.  Q: What’s Point-to-Point? A: A point-to-point network may consist of more than one connection between two machines: source and destination. A packet sent from source to destination may have to visit one or more intermediate machines. But the source and destination will think that they are connected by a single wire.  In future all the ISP’s (Internet Service Provider) will PPP Frame Format support PPP.
011111101111111100000011 variable
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01111110

The Story of Mr. T. I. Connecting to the Internet
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. Mr. TI calls the ISP using his telephone and modem. The modem connected to the router of the ISP answers Mr. TI’s call. This establishes a physical layer connection. Now Mr. TI’s PC sends PPP frames to the ISP’s router. The router sends back replies to Mr. TI’s PC. Thus a PPP (data link layer) connection is established. Now a network layer connection is required. This is done by sending & receiving NCP(Network Control Protocol) packets. Mr. TI needs an IP address. The ISP has n IP addresses. It gives Mr. TI an IP address dynamically. Thus Mr. TI is connected to the Internet. He can browse (i.e. send and receive IP packets) happily.
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How it works: PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)

Second Part of the Story

ISDN (Integrated Service Digital Network)
 History: For more than 100 years, the international telecommunication infrastructure has been public circuit-switched telephone system. It can support only analog voice transmission. Hence it is not enough for modern communication. So the telephone companies of the world decided to design a new, fully digital telephone system. The main goal was to integrate voice and non-voice service. This new system is called ISDN.  Features of ISDN: 1. Voice (the main service) 2. Intercom button for calling secretaries instantly 3. Multiple hotkeys for instantly calling (no delay for call setup) anywhere in the world 4. Caller ID display 5. Telephone can be connected to computer so that caller’s tel. no + name + address can be displayed from database 6. Call forwarding M Tanvir Irfan 7. Conferencing

How it works: ISDN
 Key Idea: Digital Bit Pipe means a conceptual pipe between the customer and the carrier through which bits flow. ISDN configuration for home/small office is: ISDN telephone ISDN Terminal
Digital bit pipe

ISDN Exchange NT Customer’s office
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Km’s away

Carrier’s office

How it works: ISDN
 In the customer’s office up to 8 telephones, computers and other devices can be connected. Similar to LAN.  NT: This is the Network Terminator placed in the customer’s office. It is responsible to send signals to the ISDN Exchange, in the carrier’s office, many kilometers away.  Digital signal is processed inside the carrier’s office and then sent to the destination customer. Now we would like to look inside the Digital Bit Pipe
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How it works: ISDN The ISDN Interface
Inside the digital bit pipe: It’s a wonderful world!  There is Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) inside the bit pipe. Don’t tell me you don’t know what is TDM!  Three types of bit pipes have been standardized on the basis of TDM: 1. Basic Rate 2. Primary Rate 3. Basic Rate digital bit pipe is the replacement  The Hybrid for POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service). Let’s examine M Tanvir Irfan it.

How it works: ISDN Basic Rate Digital Pipe

64 kbps digital PCM channel for voice or data 16-kbps outof-band signal

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ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)
 This is a connection-oriented network. Hope you know what’s connection-oriented and what’s connectionless.  ATM: This strange name is due to the fact that most transmission is synchronous (closely related to a clock) and ATM is not.  ATM Craze: During 1990s it was believed that ATM was going to solve all the networking problems by merging – voice, data, cable TV, telex, telegraph etc. etc.  Did not work because of politics  Internet (connectionless) versus Telephone companies (connection-oriented)  Don’t think ATM is dead. It is still alive deep inside the telephone network, mostly Mused by carriers for internal Tanvir Irfan transport.

How it works: ATM Virtual Circuits
 ATM is connection-oriented. So before sending data a connection has to be set up.  To set up a connection the source sends a setup-packet to the destination.  As this packet moves through the subnet, it sets up the path from source to destination.  Routers in subnet updates their routing table, when they get this packet.  This kind of connection is called virtual circuits, similar to how electricity passes through an actual circuit.
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How it works: ATM Virtual Circuits
 As you can see, the sending host sends a setup packet to the receiving host through the subnet. This packet sets up the connection. Then data can be transmitted. ATM Virtual Circuit

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You didn’t understand so far if you can’t answer these questions:
1. What protocol is used to connect to the Internet? A. PPP B. ISDN C. ATM D. I don’t care • What is a digital bit pipe? • True/False: There is no need for connection set up in ATM. • Who is Mr. T. I.? 
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That’s the end of today’s stories
This presentation is prepared from the following references:  Computer Networks, A. S. Tanenbaum, 3rd Edition  Data and Computer Communications, W. Stalling, 6th Edition  Computer Networks, A. S. Tanenbaum, 4th Edition

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