It is generally accepted that Sultan Sikandar Lodī. He ruled his Sultanate from Agra until he fell fighting to Bābar in the First battle of Panipat fought in 1526. and he later went on to conquer Delhi. the great Hindu warrior Hemu Vikramaditya. was so scared of Hemu that he retreated from the city without a fight. Agra. The golden age of the city began with the Mughals. having his coronation at Purānā Qil'a in Delhi on 7 October 1556 and re-established the Hindu Kingdom and theVikramaditya Dynasty in North India.• • HISTORY • • Though Agra's history is largely recognised wih Mughal Kingdom. Main Street. It was known then as Akbarabād and remained the capital of the Mughal Empire under the Emperors Akbar. won Agra as the Prime Minister cum Chief of Army of Adil Shah of the Afghan Sūrī Dynasty. In the year 1556. c. This was Hemu's 21st continuous win since 1554. The commander of Humāyūn / Akbar's forces in Agra. After the Sultan's death the city passed on to his son Sultan Ibrāhīm Lodī. also known as Samrat Hem Chander Vikramaditya. Tardi Beg Khan. Shāh Jahān later shifted his capital to Shāhjahānabād in the year 1649. the Ruler of the Delhi Sultanatefounded Agra in the year 1504. but the place was established much before it and has linkages since Mahabharat period and Mahirshi Angira in 1000 BC. Jahāngīr and Shāh Jahān.1858 .


Originally the ducal states like Qin. The Great Wall played a positive role at the moment in defensing the Han territory from the harassment of the Huns.-220 A. After the whole country was unified in 220 B.C. according to the recent investigations of China's Greal Wall experts. the longest wall should be the Great Wall built in Han Dynasty (206 B.000 kilometers. Wei. Yan. Zhao. he ordered his general Meng Tian to recruit 300. To strengthen the protection. by the first Emperor Qin Shihuang. . Han emperors even ordered to build other two paralleled walls in the north of Yin Mountain. In history.C.000 labours to extend and connect the northern parts of these walls to keep away the invasion from Huns tribes. from the east of Liaoning Province to Lop Nur in the southeastern portion of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. All these walls were finished between 685 -254 B.D. Qi and Han constructed the several walls to protect their territories from invasions of other kingdoms and normadic tribes during China's Warring States Period (475-221 B. Chu.). the total length exceeded more than 10. which made part of Huns move to the West Aisa and Europe after they were defeated several times by Han’s Army.).• • HISTORY The earliest walls can date back to 2500 years ago.C.C.


atop the Corcovado mountain overlooking Rio de Janeiro. Designed by Brazilian Heitor da Silva Costa and created by French sculptor Paul Landowski. including and . it is one of the world’s bestknown monuments. 2007.Leading corporate sponsors. • This statue of Jesus stands some 38 meters tall. 1931. It has become a symbol of the city and of the warmth of the Brazilian people. Christ the Redeemer was named one of the in a list compiled by the Swiss-based The New Open World Corporation.HISTORY A World Wonder On July 7. The statue took five years to construct and was inaugurated on October 12. had lobbied to have the statue voted into the top seven. who receive visitors with open arms .


HISTORY • This great amphitheater in the centre of Rome was built to give favors to successful legionnaires and to celebrate the glory of the Roman Empire. all for the joy of the spectators. through films and history books. and virtually every modern sports stadium some 2.000 years later still bears the irresistible imprint of the Colosseum's original design. . Its design concept still stands to this very day. we are even more aware of the cruel fights and games that took place in this arena. Today.


Machu Picchu (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈmatʃu ˈpitʃu].[1][2] It is situated on a mountain ridge above the Urubamba Valley in Peru. it is perhaps the most familiar icon of the Inca World.• • HISTORY In the 15th century. Often referred to as the "Lost City of the Incas". after the Spanish defeated the Incan Empire. the city remained 'lost' for over three centuries. which is 80 kilometres (50 mi) northwest of Cusco and through which theUrubamba River flows.970 ft) above sea level. This extraordinary settlement lies halfway up the Andes Plateau. "Old Peak") is a pre-Columbian 15thcentury Inca site located 2. deep in the Amazon jungle and above the Urubamba River.430 metres (7. Quechua: Machu Pikchu [ˈmɑtʃu ˈpixtʃu]. . It was rediscovered by Hiram Bingham in 1911. It was probably abandoned by the Incas because of a smallpox outbreak and. Most archaeologists believe that Machu Picchu was built as an estate for the Inca emperor Pachacuti (1438–1472). the Incan Emperor Pachacútec built a city in the clouds on the mountain known as Machu Picchu ("old mountain").


are impressive examples of Middle Eastern culture. 7 seems to be more specific. the Biblical references[10] refer to it as "the cleft in the rock". Today. modelled on Greek-Roman prototypes. Stations 19 through 26 of the stations list of Exodus are places associated with Petra. Although Petra is usually identified with Sela which means a rock. referring to its entrance.HISTORY Evidence suggests that settlements had begun in and around Petra in the eighteenth dynasty of Egypt (15501292 BC). In the parallel passage. to 40 A.). 12. the predecessors of theEdomites.D. The second book of Kings xiv.[8] This part of the country was Biblically assigned to the Horites. the Nabataeans provided their city with great tunnel constructions and water chambers. with the 42meter-high Hellenistic temple facade on the El-Deir Monastery. a sanctuary existed there since very ancient times. Masters of water technology. It is listed in Egyptian campaign accounts and the Amarna letters as Pel. .000. the Palace Tombs of Petra. Sela is understood to mean simply "the rock" (2 Chronicles xxv. however. had space for an audience of 4. Petra was the glittering capital of the Nabataean empire of King Aretas IV (9 B. see LXX). • On the edge of the Arabian Desert.C. Though the city was founded relatively late. Sela or Seir. A theater.[9] The habits of the original natives may have influenced the Nabataean custom of burying the dead and offering worship in halfexcavated caves.


Its various structures .HISTORY Chichén Itzá. the "Cenote Sagrado" or Sacred Cenote(also variously known as the Sacred Well or Well of Sacrifice). natural sink holes.the pyramid of Kukulkan. and arguably the greatest. that could have provided plentiful water year round at Chichen.pottery. the most famous Mayan temple city. and recovered artifacts of gold. of all Mayan temples. the Hall of the Thousand Pillars. the Temple of Chac Mool. and the rivers in the interior all run underground. pre-Columbian Maya sacrificed objects and human beings into the cenote as a form of worship to the Maya rain god Chaac. According to post-Conquest sources (Maya and Spanish). called cenotes. and the Playing Field of the Prisoners – can still be seen today and are demonstrative of an extraordinary commitment to architectural space and composition. Edward Herbert Thompson dredged the Cenote Sagrado from 1904 to 1910. is the most famous. and incense. The pyramid itself was the last. Of the two cenotes. as well as human remains. jade. • Northern Yucatán is arid. served as the political and economic center of the Mayan civilization. There are two large.[8] A study of human remains taken from the Cenote Sagrado found that they had wounds consistent with human sacrifice . making it attractive for settlement.

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