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Nutraceutical Definition

The term "nutraceutical" was coined from "nutrition" and "pharmaceutical" in 1989 by Stephen DeFelice, MD, founder and chairman of the Foundation for Inno-vation in Medicine (FIM), Cranford, NJ.

According to DeFelice, nutraceutical can be defined as, "a food (or part of a food) that provides medical or health benefits, including the prevention and/or treatment of a disease.

NUTRACEUTICALS

Isoprenoids (terpenoids)

Phenolic Compounds

Protein/Amino Acid - Based

Carbohydrate & Derivatives

Fatty Acids & Struct. Lipids

Minerals

Microbial

Carotenoids Saponins Tocotrienols Tocopherols Simple terpenes

Coumarins Tannins Lignin Anthrocyan ins Isoflavones Flavonones flavonols

Amino acids Allyl-S compds Capsaicinoids Isothiocyanates

Asorbic acid Oligosacchari des Non-starch PS

n-3 PUFA MUFA Sphingo lipids lecithin

Ca Se K Cu Zn

Probiotics prebiotics

Indoles
Folate choline

We are looking for

Natural, healthy food Nutritional Wholesomeness Low fat Low sugar Fibre rich Specific health benefits

EXAMPLES OF FUNCTIONAL COMPONENTS


Class /components Fatty acids Source Milk & Meat Potential benefit Improve body composition, reduce cancers Reduce CVD & improve mental, visual function
Reduce CVD Reduce risk of cancer

n-3 FA(DHA,EPA) Fish oils, & maize.


Polyphenols Catechins Fruits Tea, vegetables, Soya bean Soybeans, chick pea Dahi, yogurt

Flavonone proanthocyanidine Saponins


Probiotics/Prebiotics

Lower cholesterol, anti cancer Improve GI health

Caroteinoids
- caroteine Berseem,lucerne ,oat & maize fodder, Carrots, vegetabels,fruits vegetabels Eggs,citrus,corn Nutralises free radicals

Luteine Zeoxanthine

Healthy vision

Lycopene

Tomatoes

Reduce prostate cancer

Dietary fiber
Insoluble fiber -glucan Wheat bran Reduce breast, colon cancer

Oats

Reduce CVD

Whole grain

Cereal grains

NUTRACEUTICAL SCENARIO IN INDIA


The Indian Nutritional market is estimated to be USD 1 Billion.

While the global market is growing at a CAGR


of 7%, the Indian market has been growing much faster at a CAGR of 18% for the last three years, driven by Functional food and beverages

categories.

Indias nutritional supplement market is expected to more than double in the next four years at over Rs9,500 crore.

Functional foods are ones in which concentration of one or more ingredients has been manipulated to enhance their contributions to a

healthful diet.
- Institute of Medicine, US. 1994

Functional foods are modified foods that help to improve health and
prevent diseases when ingested.
- Wyllie, 1994

Functional food is a food, which has been tailored to meet a specific dietary health concern.
- Turner, 1995

Functional foods GOOD FOR US


To get more benefits from what you consume
The health functions :Immune supports Energy enhancement Healthy joint functions Stress relief weight loss Overall well being

Functional Food Development creative art


Probiotics, herbal extracts, plants sterols, betaglucans, essential fatty acids and antioxidants.

RECENT ADVANCES IN EXTRACTION OF NUTRACEUTICALS

Soxhlet Extraction Accelerated solvent extraction Supercritical fluid extraction Microwave-assisted extraction Ultrasound-assisted extraction

Soxhlet extraction
Soxhlet- used for a long time, is a standard technique and the main reference for evaluating the performance of other solidliquid

extraction (or leaching) methods.

Practical issues- Advantage& Disadvantages.


Solvent choice Hexane Boiling point- 63-69C Isopropanol+ Hexane- Increase yield & Extraction kinetics.

Alternative solvents
Isopropanol, ethanol-less recovery-decreased low molecular affinity Between solvent & solute. Matrix characteristics Particle size Operating conditions Extraction & Evaporation Temp- Effect on final product. Advantage Very simple & cheap, no filtration requirement. Disadvantage Time is long, Large amount solvent required, Agitation Not provide to accelerate the process. More solvent- Evaporation & concentration procedure.

Supercritical fluid extraction


Principles and mechanisms Supercritical state - achieved when the temperature and the pressure of a substance is raised over its critical value.

CO2 gas critical point Temperature of only 304K and


pressure of 7.3MPa.

Practical issues - Advantages & Disadvantages

Solvent choice CO2 gas- Non Flammable & Non-Toxic. Good solvent- Non Polar compounds ,Ex: Hydrocarbons. Dissolving power Higher diffusion coefficient & lower viscosity & surface tension. Extract polar compounds- polar SCF- Freon-22, nitrous oxide &hexane. Plant materials High moisture- cause mechanical difficulties. Particle size- Large particle cause long extraction. Operating conditions Temp & Density of fluid Lower molecular weight & less polar compounds- readily extracted. Advantages Heat sensible compounds. Directly coupled with chromatographic method.

Ricebran

N-3,n-6 Fatty acids


Phystosterols

safflower

Sesame
Almond

Carotenoids
Oryzanol

Amaranth Glycolipis Avocado Lipoproteins

Review of work done by using SCF Extraction

Ref: Herero et al./J.Chromotography A1217 (2010) 2495-2511

Accelerated solvent Extraction


Principles
ASE is a solid-liquid extraction process

Performed at elevated temperature ,


usually between 50 and 200C and at pressures between 500-3000psi.

The solvent used in ASE is usually


organic solvents. High extraction Temperature Degradation of thermo labile compound.

Christen et al.(2002) Phytochem.anal.13, 105-113

ULTRASOUND ASSISTED EXTRACTION


Principles

Sound waves, which have frequencies higher than 20 kHz, are mechanical vibrations in a solid,

liquid and gas.


Expansion &compression pulls pushes -molecules them together. apart The

expansion can create bubbles in a liquid and


produce negative pressure. The bubbles form, grow and finally collapse. Close to a solid boundary, cavity collapse is asymmetric and produces high-speed jets of liquid. The liquid jets have strong impact on the solid surface(Garcia, 2003)

Important factors & Advantages, Disadvantages.


Plant matrix Moisture content Particle size Solvent Frequency Pressure Temperature
Excess Sonication time damage the quality of extracts. Efficient Method for extracting bio active compound from Solvia officinalis (Salisova et al., 1997) and Hibiscustiliaceus L. flowers (Melecchi et al., 2002), Antioxidants from Rosmarinus officinalis (Albu et al., 2004), and Steroids and triterpenoids from Chresta spp. UAE is cheaper & Easier.

Microwave Assisted Extraction


Microwaves 300GHz. are electromagnetic

radiations with a frequency from 0.3 to

Water within the plant matrix absorbs microwave energy , cell disruption is

promoted by internal super heating ,


which facilitates desorption of chemicals from the matrix.

Matrix characteristics Impossible to perform- completely dry material & very wet samples. Plant particle size- 100m-2mm. Solvent choice High dielectric constant. Hexane acetone. Operating conditions Solvent volume must be sufficient to ensure that solid matrix is entirely immersed. Temperature. Disadvantage Filtration required to remove the solid residue.

Ref: Christen et al.(2002) Phytochem.anal.13, 105-113

MICROENCAPSULATION
Microencapsulation is a processing method in which
small quantities of solid, liquid and gaseous materials are packed into a wall matrix; which forms

microcapsules. It has been observed that these


microcapsules can release their contents at controlled rates over prolonged periods of time (Champagne, 2007). The basic steps in the microencapsulation involves the preparation of a stable emulsion to be processed; homogenization of the emulsion; atomization of the emulsion; and dehydration of the atomized particles (Shahidi & Han, 1993).

What are all encapsulated


Flavors Amino acids Antimicrobials Bases

Common terms used in Encapsulation


1. 2. Wall / Capsule Core materials

Colorants
Edible oils Leavening agents
solubility viscosity inert diffusibility

Minerals
Salt vitamins

film forming
emulsifying properties