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# Module 13: Gage R&R Analysis Analysis of

## Repeatability and Reproducibility

This is a technique to measure the precision of gages and other measurement
systems. The name of this technique originated from the operation of a gage by
different operators for measuring a collection of parts. The precision of the
measurements using this gage involves at least two major components: the
systematic difference among operators and the differences among parts. The
Gage R&R analysis is a technique to quantify each component of the variation so
that we will be able to determine what proportion of variability is due to
operators, and what is due to the parts.
A typical gage R&R study is conducted as the following:
A quality characteristic of an object of interest (could be parts, or any well
defined experimental units for the study) is selected for the study. A gage or a
certain instrument is chosen as the measuring device. J operators are randomly
selected. I parts are randomly chosen and prepared for the study. Each of the J
operators is asked to measure the characteristic of each of the I parts for r times
(repeatedly measure the same part r times). The variation among the m
replications of the given parts measured by the same operation is the
Repeatability of the gage. The variability among operators is the
Reproducibility.
Gage repeatability and reproducibility studies determine how much of
your observed process variation is due to measurement system
variation. The overall variation is broken down into three categories:
part-to-part, repeatability, and reproducibility. The reproducibility
component can be further broken down into its operator, and operator
by part, components.
Overall Variation
Pat-to-Part Variation
Measurement System Variation
Variation due to Gage
Variation due to Operators
Repeatability
Reproducibility
Operators
Operator by Part
Case Study (Data are from Vardeman & Jobe (1999):
A study was conducted to investigate the precision of measuring the heights of 10 steel
punches (in 10
-3
inches) using a certain micrometer caliper. Three operators were
randomly selected for the the study. Ten parts with steel punches are randomly selected.
Each operator measured each punch three time. Here are the data.
Row Punch OperA OperB OperC
1 1 496 497 497
2 1 496 499 498
3 1 499 497 496
4 2 498 498 497
5 2 497 496 499
6 2 499 499 500
7 3 498 497 496
8 3 498 498 498
9 3 498 497 497
10 4 497 496 498
11 4 497 496 497
12 4 498 499 497
13 5 499 499 499
14 5 501 499 499
15 5 500 499 500
Row Punch OperA OperB OperC
16 6 499 500 498
17 6 498 499 498
18 6 499 497 498
19 7 503 498 500
20 7 499 499 499
21 7 502 499 502
22 8 500 501 500
23 8 499 498 501
24 8 499 499 499
25 9 499 500 500
26 9 500 500 499
27 9 499 498 500
28 10 497 500 496
29 10 496 494 498
30 10 496 496 496
A statistical Model for Describing the Gage R&R Study
ijk
The observation , y is the kth measurement made by operator j on part i.
It can be expressed by a two-way random effect model:
( ) , i=1,2,...,I; j = 1,2,..., J; k = 1,2,. ..,r.
ijk i j ij ijk
y e o | o| = + + + +
where is the unknow grand mean,
~ (0, ), which are the ranom effects of different parts.
~ (0, ), which are the random effects of different operators.
~ (0, ), which are th erandom effec
i
j
ij
N
N
N
o
|
o|

o o
| o
o| o
ijk
2 2 2 2
ts of the parts-operator interaction
e ~ (0, ), which is the random error due to replications.
And these components are independent.
Note we have four variance components: , , , .
N
o | o|
o
o o o o
The Repeatability is the uncertainty among replications of m
measurements of a given part made by the an operator. Since part
and operator are fixed, the variance component for the repeatability
is the random error, o
2
. On the other hand, the reproducibility is the
uncertainty among operators for measuring the same part.
Therefore, the variance component for the reproducibility is
2 2
| o|
o o +
2 2
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
,
Further more, the overall uncertaity of a mesurement is
NOTE :
T
repeatability reprodicibilty
overall reproducibility repeatability
overall
| o|
| o|
| o|
o o o o o
o o o o o o
o o o o
= = +
= + + = +
= + +
he proportion of uncertainty due to Repeatability and Reproducibility can be obtain.
How to estimate these variance components?
Two ways to determine these variance components:
1. X-bar & R-chart approach.: can be done by hand, but it less accurate.
2. ANOVA approach : Computer will be handy.

We will discuss both approaches
Our goal is to estimate
2
R
=
( )
.
repeatability
d r
o
Repeatability is the variation due to random error introduced
by the differences of the repeated measurements of the same
part by the same operator. That is this the variation among:
Y
ij1
, y
ij2
, y
ijr

The range Rij can be easily obtained and applied to estimate
this variability (recall the X-bar & R-charts):
E(R
ij
) = d
2
(r)o . Therefore,
and
repeatability reporducibility
o o
The following is the R
ij
s for the Measured Punch Heights
Punch Operator 1 Operator 2 Operator 3
1 3 2
2 2 3
3 0 1
4 1 3
5 2 0
6 1 3
7 4 1
8 1 3
9 1 2
10 1 0
The average range is __________ And d
2
(r=3) = _________
Therefore,
___________
repeatability
o =
1.9, 1.693, 1.12
Determine the reproducibility
Reproducibility measures the uncertainty among operators for
a given part. This uncertainty is closely related to the range:
ij
2 2 2
ij
max min from the model,
y
Now, for a given fixed part i, y has the variance /
(since part is fixed. No variation among parts among these means).
Therefore
i ij ij
j j
i j ij ij
y y
e
r
| o|
o | o|
o o o
A =
= + + + +
+ +
2 2 2
2
2 2
2
, using the range to estimate s.d., we have:
E( ) ( ) /
By some simple algebra, the variance component for reporducibility
is estimated by
( )
i
d J r
d J
| o|
| o|
o o o
o o
A = + +
+
| | A

\ .
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
1
( )
Since this difference may be negative, we take reproducibility to be:
1
max(0,
( ) ( )
reporducibility
R
r d r
R
d J r d r
o
| |

| |
\ .
| | | | A
=
| |
\ . \ .
For the Punch Height case study, the following table gives the
measurement means of ith part by the jth operator:
Punch (i)
1 497.00 497.67 497.00 .67
2 498.00 497.67 498.67 1.00
3 498.00 497.33 497.00
4 497.33 497.00 497.33
5 500.00 499.00 499.33
6 498.67 498.67 498.00
7 501.33 498.67 500.33
8 499.33 499.33 500.00
9 499.33 499.33 499.67
10 496.33 496.67 496.67
1 i
y 3 i
y
2 i
y
i
A
2 2
_________, d ( ) (___) _______

## max(0, _________) _________

reproducibility
J d
o
A = = =
= =
0
Using ANOVA approach, we have the following results:
(to be shown by computer output)
NOTE: Recall from Module 12, This is two random effect factor
model with applications to repeatability and reproducibility
2 2
2
2
2

1
max(0, ( ))
1
max(0, ( ))
1 1
max{0, ( ( 1) )) }
repeatability
reproducibility
MSE
MSB MSAB
Ir
MSAB MSE
r
MSB I MSAB MSE
Ir r
|
o|
o o
o
o
o
= =
=
=
= +
Overall Uncertainty of the Gage under evaluation when it is used
to produce measurements
To sum up the discussion of this Gage R&R Analysis, the final
goal is to determine the uncertainty of the gage, and determine
the capability of the gage. This information will be taken for
further study of possible calibration study or for setting up
quality control procedure to ensure the gage to be capable,
that is , to ensure the expanded uncertainty is within a certain
range with a high level of confidence (95%, 99% or higher).
How to determine the capability of a gage?
For most gages (instruments), it usually comes with an engineer specification limit.
The specification limits speficies the range of the measurement the instruct will produce.
It is usually stated as th
standard
e form of x .
When the measurement is out of the limit, the instrucment is no longer function properly,
and some adjusment or calibration will be needed.
One of the final goal of a Gage R&R ana
x
U
lysis is to evaluate how cacapble of the
instrument be measuring the Gage Capability Ratio:
6 6
GCR =
2U Upper Spec - Lower Spec
overall overall
x
o o
=
The multiple, 6, is chosen based on normal distribution so that 99.5% of
chance the measurements will covered. The estimate overall uncertainty is the
most current condition of the instrument. Therefore,
If GCR > 1, it indicates that the current condition is out of specs, and some
adjustment or calibration of the instrument may be necessary.
The current condition can also be presented as

best overall
x o
In many cases, one may be interested in repeatability and
reproducibility components separately, and present each in terms
of %GCR for Repeatability, %GCR for Reproducibility.
6 6
%GCR for Repeatability = 100 100
2U Upper Spec - Lower Spec
repeatability repeatability
x
o o
=
6 6
%GCR for Reproducibility = 100 100
2U Upper Spec - Lower Spec
reporducibility reproducibility
x
o o
=
A simple guideline can then be determined to monitor the instrument (gage or
system). One common guideline used in industry is:
If %GCR Repeatability > 5%, a yellow warning sign is flagged.
If %GCR Repeatability > 10%, a red sign is flagged, and an immediate
attention is needed for instrument adjustment or calibration.
Similarly, one can set up a flag system for reproducibility.
If If %GCR Repeatability > 20%, a yellow warning sign is flagged.
If %GCR Repeatability > 30%, a red sign is flagged, and an immediate action
is needed for operator retraining or monitoring the process produces the parts.
Gage R&R (Crossed): When the same parts are used cross the entire study.
That is every operator measures the same parts.In experimental design
language, this is a two-factor factorial design with both factors are random
effect factors.
The two factors are Operators and Parts.
The statistical model is
Two Types of Gage R&R Experimental Designs
( ) , i=1,2,...,I; j = 1,2,..., J; k = 1,2,. ..,r.
where is the unknow grand mean,
~ (0, ), which are the ranom effects of different parts.
~ (0, ), which are the random e
ijk i j ij ijk
i
j
y e
N
N
o
|
o | o|

o o
| o
= + + + +
ijk
ffects of different operators.
~ (0, ), which are th erandom effects of the parts-operator interaction
e ~ (0, ), which is the random error due to replications.
And these components are independ
ij
N
N
o|
o| o
o
ent.
NOTE: The model has an interaction term between Operator abd Part.
Gage R&R (Nested): In cases where one part can only be measured once. Once it
is used, it can no longer be used. In this case, parts are nested within operator.
Each operator measures different sets of parts. It is important to choose the parts
(the experimental units) as homogeneous as possible, so that the variability due to
operator reflects the uncertainty of operators not because of the different parts
being used by different operators.
The statistical model describes this design is a two nested random effects model :
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
, i=1,2,...,I; j = 1,2,..., J; k = 1,2,...,r.
where is the unknow grand mean,
~ (0, ), which are the random effects of different operators.
~ (0, ), which are the
ijk j i j k ij
j
i j
y e
N
N
|
o |
| o

| o
o o
= + + +
ijk
ranom effects of different parts within operator.
e ~ (0, ), which is the random error due to replications.
NOTE: The the Part is nested within Operator.
N o
Use Minitab to perform the analysis
for the Punch Height Case Study
Minitab provides two methods for Gage R&R(Crossed Design) : Xbar and R,
or ANOVA, one method for the Gage R&R (Nested Design): ANOVA method.
In addition, there is a Gage R&R Run Chart tool to show the measurements for
each operator from part to part.
Data Preparation: Gage R& R data must be arranged in three columns: One
for Operator ID, one for Part number and one for the measurement. If the
data originally are created as each operators measurement is entered in one
column (eg., C1 for Parts Number, C2 for the measurement of Operator 1,
C3 for Operator 2 and C4 for Operator 3), then data have to be STACKED
together. Steps of using Minitab to Stack several columns into one:
1. Go to Manip, choose Satck, select Stack Columns.
2. In the dialog box, enter column # where the new stacked column will be,
and the corresponding index column as the subscripts.
Before running the Gage R&R analysis, you need to decide if the
design is a crossed factorial design, or a nested design by
checking if the same parts are used by each operator (Crossed)
or different parts are use by each operator (Nested).
Gage R&R (Crossed Design):
1. Go to Stat, go to Quality Tools, choose Gage R&R Study (Crossed).
2. In the dialog box, enter the Columns for Part Operator and Measurement.
Choose the Method Either ANOVA or Xbar-R.
3. There are two selections: Gage Infor is for keeping track of the Gage
information. Options is for Tolerance Analysis. In the uncertainty study, this
is irrelevant.
However, if one is conducting a quality control monitoring, this provides the
information about the process tolerance and how it is compared with a
given tolerance range. In the box: study Variation is 5.15 by default,
5.15x(s.d.), which is designed to cover 99% of all possible values
(NOTE 5.15 = 2(z
(.005)
). Under normal curve, 5.15(s.d.) covers
approximately 99% of the data values). One can choose different
multiple for difference level of confidence.

Gage name:
Date of study:
Reported by:
Tol erance:
Mi sc:
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
1 2 3 4 5 Part
H
e
i
g
h
t
OperA
OperB
OperC
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
6 7 8 9 10 Part
H
e
i
g
h
t
Runchart of Height by Part, Operator
The following graph is from the Gage Run Chart Procedure. In
Minitab, go to Stat, choose Quality Tools, selcet Gage Run Chart, then
enter columns numbers for Part, Operator, and Measurement.
StdDev Study Var %Study Var
Source (SD) (5.15*SD) (%SV)
Total Gage R&R 1.12310 5.78398 70.87
Repeatability 1.12227 5.77968 70.82
Reproducibility 0.04331 0.22304 2.73
Part-to-Part 1.11810 5.75821 70.55
Total Variation 1.58477 8.16158 100.00
Number of distinct categories = 1
Gage R&R Study - XBar/R Method for Height
%Contribution
Source Variance (of Variance)
Total Gage R&R 1.26136 50.22
Repeatability 1.25949 50.15
Reproducibility 0.00188 0.07
Part-to-Part 1.25015 49.78
Total Variation 2.51151 100.00

repeatability
reproducibility
o
o

496
497
498
499
500
501
502 OperA OperB OperC
Xbar Chart by Operator
S
a
m
p
l
e

M
e
a
n
Mean=498.4
UCL=500.3
LCL=496.4
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
OperA OperB OperC
R Chart by Operator
S
a
m
p
l
e

R
a
n
g
e
R=1.9
UCL=4.891
LCL=0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
496
497
498
499
500
501
Part
Operator
Operator*Part Interaction
A
v
e
r
a
g
e
OperA
OperB
OperC
OperA OperB OperC
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
Operator
Response by Operator
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
Part
Response by Part
%Contribution
%Study Var
Gage R&R Repeat Reprod Part-to-Part
0
50
100
Components of Variation
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
Gage R&R (Xbar/R) for Punch Height Study
Gage R& R Analysis ANOVA Method
Two-Way ANOVA Table With Interaction
Source DF SS MS F P
Part 9 122.400 13.6000 14.9268 0.00000
Operator 2 2.489 1.2444 1.3659 0.28037
Operator*Part 18 16.400 0.9111 0.6260 0.86484
Repeatability 60 87.333 1.4556
Total 89 228.622

Two-Way ANOVA Table Without Interaction
Source DF SS MS F P

Part 9 122.400 13.6000 10.2262 0.00000
Operator 2 2.489 1.2444 0.9357 0.39666
Repeatability 78 103.733 1.3299
Total 89 228.622

Gage R&R (BY ANOVA Method Crossed Design)
%Contribution
Source VarComp (of VarComp)
Total Gage R&R 1.3299 49.38
Repeatability 1.3299 49.38
Reproducibility 0.0000 0.00
Operator 0.0000 0.00
Part-To-Part 1.3633 50.62
Total Variation 2.6933 100.00

StdDev Study Var %Study
Var
Source (SD) (5.15*SD) (%SV)
Total Gage R&R 1.15322 5.93908 70.27
Repeatability 1.15322 5.93908 70.27
Reproducibility 0.00000 0.00000 0.00
Operator 0.00000 0.00000 0.00
Part-To-Part 1.16762 6.01326 71.15
Total Variation 1.64111 8.45174 100.00
Number of Distinct Categories = 1
If the specs for the gage is
What is the GCR? What is the
%GCR for Repeatability? Does
the gage need calibration?
If the specs for the gage is
What is the GCR? What is the
%GCR for Repeatability? Does
the gage need calibration?

2.0
5.0
Gage name:
Date of study:
Reported by:
Tol erance:
Mi sc:
0
496
497
498
499
500
501
502 OperA OperB OperC
Xbar Chart by Operator
S
a
m
p
l
e

M
e
a
n
Mean=498.4
UCL=500.3
LCL=496.4
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
OperA OperB OperC
R Chart by Operator
S
a
m
p
l
e

R
a
n
g
e
R=1.9
UCL=4.891
LCL=0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
496
497
498
499
500
501
Part
Operator
Operator*Part Interaction
A
v
e
r
a
g
e
OperA
OperB
OperC
OperA OperB OperC
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
Operator
By Operator
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
Part
By Part
%Contribution
%Study Var
Gage R&R Repeat Reprod Part-to-Part
0
50
100
Components of Variation
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
Gage R&R (ANOVA) for Height
Gage R&R (Nested Design)
The same Punch Height Case Study is use to demonstrate the
Nested Model Assuming the steel punches can only be
measured once by an operator. In this set up, we need to
prepare 30 different experimental units, in stead of 10.
Gage R&R (Nested) for Height
Nested ANOVA Table
Source DF SS MS F P

Operator 2 2.489 1.24444 0.24207 0.78668
Part (Operator) 27 138.800 5.14074 3.53181 0.00002
Repeatability 60 87.333 1.45556
Total 89 228.622

Gage R&R (Nested Model)
%Contribution
Source VarComp (of VarComp)
Total Gage R&R 1.45556 54.23
Repeatability 1.45556 54.23
Reproducibility 0.00000 0.00
Part-To-Part 1.22840 45.77
Total Variation 2.68395 100.00

StdDev Study Var %Study Var
Source (SD) (5.15*SD) (%SV)
Total Gage R&R 1.20646 6.21329 73.64
Repeatability 1.20646 6.21329 73.64
Reproducibility 0.00000 0.00000 0.00
Part-To-Part 1.10833 5.70790 67.65
Total Variation 1.63828 8.43713 100.00
NOTE: No Operator by
Part Interaction
Gage name:
Date of study:
Reported by:
Tol erance:
Mi sc:
496
497
498
499
500
501
502 OperA OperB OperC
Xbar Chart by Operator
S
a
m
p
l
e

M
e
a
n
Mean=498.4
UCL=500.3
LCL=496.4
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
OperA OperB OperC
R Chart by Operator
S
a
m
p
l
e

R
a
n
g
e
R=1.9
UCL=4.891
LCL=0
OperA OperB OperC
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
Operator
By Operator
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9101 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9101 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910
OperA OperB OperC
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
Part
Operator
By Part (Operator)
%Contribution
%Study Var
Gage R&R Repeat Reprod Part-to-Part
0
50
100
Components of Variation
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
Gage R&R (Nested) for Height
Use of General Linear Model Approach to Analyze the Punch
Height Gage R&R data
General Linear Model: Height versus Operator, Part
Factor Type Levels Values
Operator random 3 OperA OperB OperC
Part random 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Analysis of Variance for Height, using Adjusted SS for Tests
Operator 2 2.489 2.489 1.244 1.37 0.280
Part 9 122.400 122.400 13.600 14.93 0.000
Operator*Part 18 16.400 16.400 0.911 0.63 0.865
Error 60 87.333 87.333 1.456
Total 89 228.622
Unusual Observations for Height
Obs Height Fit SE Fit Residual St Resid
3 499.000 497.000 0.697 2.000 2.03R
20 499.000 501.333 0.697 -2.333 -2.37R
42 499.000 497.000 0.697 2.000 2.03R
58 500.000 496.667 0.697 3.333 3.38R
59 494.000 496.667 0.697 -2.667 -2.71R
Expected Mean Squares, using Adjusted SS
Source Expected Mean Square for Each Term
1 Operator (4) + 3.0000(3) + 30.0000(1)
2 Part (4) + 3.0000(3) + 9.0000(2)
3 Operator*Part (4) + 3.0000(3)
4 Error (4)

Error Terms for Tests, using Adjusted SS
Source Error DF Error MS Synthesis of
Error MS
1 Operator 18.00 0.911 (3)
2 Part 18.00 0.911 (3)
3 Operator*Part 60.00 1.456 (4)

Source Estimated Value
Operator 0.01111
Part 1.40988
Operator*Part -0.18148
Error 1.45556
The EMS provides
information for
determining how we
should conduct the F-test.
Source(1) Operator is tested by
suing Source (3) as Error Term.
Source (2) Part uses Source (3)
as the Error Term.
Source (3) Operator*Part uses
the Source (4) Random Error as
the Error Term.
Source Estimated Value
Operator 0.01111
Part 1.40988
Operator*Part -0.18148
Error 1.45556

Least Squares Means for Height
Operator Mean
OperA 498.5
OperB 498.1
OperC 498.4
Part
1 497.2
2 498.1
3 497.4
4 497.2
5 499.4
6 498.4
7 500.1
8 499.6
9 499.4
10 496.6
NOTE:
The estimated Variance Component
for Operator*Part is Negative!
This is not realistic in real world
applications. If it is negative, the
value zero is usually taken.
In a system of a sequence of operations, one process is to
measure the angle at which fibers are glued to a sheet of base
material. The correct angle is extremely important in the later
processes. A Gage R&R project is determined to study the
uncertainty of the degree of the angle. A team of four members
are chosen for the study. Each team member measures five
specimens for three times. The same five specimens are used
through the the project. The tolerance specification is
The measurements are recorded in the following table.
Conduct a through analysis of Gage R&R study and prepare a
summary report of the findings.
0
4
Hands-on Project for Gage R&R Analysis
(Data Source: Vardeman & Jobe, 1999)
Row Anal Speci Angle
1 1 1 23
2 1 1 20
3 1 1 20
4 1 2 17
5 1 2 20
6 1 2 20
7 1 3 23
8 1 3 20
9 1 3 22
10 1 4 16
11 1 4 22
12 1 4 15
13 1 5 20
14 1 5 20
15 1 5 22
16 2 1 20
17 2 1 25
18 2 1 17
19 2 2 15
20 2 2 13
21 2 2 16
22 2 3 20
23 2 3 23
24 2 3 20
25 2 4 20
26 2 4 22
27 2 4 18
28 2 5 18
29 2 5 20
30 2 5 18
31 3 1 20
32 3 1 19
33 3 1 16
34 3 2 15
35 3 2 20
36 3 2 16
37 3 3 15
38 3 3 20
39 3 3 22
40 3 4 17
41 3 4 18
42 3 4 15
43 3 5 20
44 3 5 16
45 3 5 17
46 4 1 18
47 4 1 18
48 4 1 21
49 4 2 21
50 4 2 17
51 4 2 16
52 4 3 17
53 4 3 20
54 4 3 18
55 4 4 16
56 4 4 15
57 4 4 17
58 4 5 18
59 4 5 18
60 4 5 20