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10/25/2011

Health and Hygiene

Introduction Different Kinds of Infectious Diseases Immunization Two Fatal Diseases: HIV AIDS, Hepatitis A&B Vaccines: History, Development, Inventor & Discovery Antibiotics Conclusion Credits
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10/25/2011

The earliest definition of health was the Absence of Disease. WHO defines health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely an absence of disease or infirmity. Hygiene refers to the set of practices perceived by a community to be associated with the preservation of health and healthy living. While in modern medical sciences there is a set of standards of hygiene recommended for different situations, what is considered hygienic or can not vary between different cultures, genders and etarian groups.
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Infectious diseases are the diseases which can get transferred from one person to another. Clinicians classify infectious microorganisms or microbes according to the status of host defenses- either as primary pathogens or opportunistic pathogens. Primary pathogens: Primary pathogens cause disease as a result of their presence or activity within the normal, health host and their intrinsic virulence is in part necessary consequence of their need to reproduce and spread. Opportunistic pathogens: Organisms which cause an infectious disease in a host with depressed resistance are classified as opportunistic pathogens.

10/25/2011

Health and Hygiene

Immunization, is the process by which an individual's immune system becomes fortified against an agent. Immunization of a body can be done with the help of vaccines.
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It is sometimes called slim disease". It is a fatal illness caused by a retrovirus (RNA virus) human immuno-deficiency virus. It breaks down the immune system of the body. Blood and semen are the main sources of infection and are found in them in greatest concentration. AIDS patient shows the signs of unexplained diarrhoea lasting more than a month, fatigue, bodily discomfort, loss of body weight ,fever, night sweats , etc. AIDS is the End stage of HIV infection.

10/25/2011

Health and Hygiene

Transmission of then virus is due to unsafe sexual practices, a mother with AIDS to the foetus, contaminated blood transfusion , contaminated needles or syringes. We can prevent AIDS by providing proper knowledge in the rural areas, testing of donated blood for HIV virus, disposal of used needles and syringes properly.

10/25/2011

Health and Hygiene

HEPATITIS A
Hepatitis a is an acute infectious disease caused by hepatitis A virus. Its infection in children is more frequent in children than in adults. The major route of transmission is the faecal-oral route. It causes fever, chills, headache, fatigue, general weakness and aches and pains, followed by anorexia, vomiting, dark urine, jaundice. It can be prevented by using boiled or chlorinated water, maintaining personal hygiene and getting hepatitis A vaccine. It can be controlled by closing personal contacts with person suffering from it and taking a good diet.

HEPATITIS B
Hepatitis B is an acute infection in the liver caused by hepatitis B virus. Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis or transfusion Hepatitis. Hepatitis B is a major public health problem in India. Hepatitis B has no seasonal Pattern. It replicates in the liver cells. Its reservoir is the man. Its incubation period is 45 to 180 days. It is essentially a blood borne Infection. It is transmitted through infected blood and blood products through transfusion, dialysis, contaminated syringe and needles, pricks of skin, etc.. It can be prevented by inoculating hepatitis B vaccine (plasma derived vaccine)

10/25/2011

Health and Hygiene

A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe or its toxins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as foreign, destroy it, and "remember" it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it later encounters. The term vaccine derives from Edward Jenner's 1796 use of cow pox (Latin variola vaccinia, adapted from the Latin vaccn-us, from vacca cow), to inoculate humans, providing them protection against smallpox.

10/25/2011

Health and Hygiene

In 1928, Alexander Fleming observed antibiosis against bacteria by a fungus of the genus Penicillium. Fleming postulated that the effect was mediated by an antibacterial compound named penicillin, and that its antibacterial properties could be exploited for chemotherapy. He initially characterized some of its biological properties, but he did not pursue its further development.

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By the above explanation we can conclude that diseases are of many type some of them are very fatal while some can be cured. But these all diseases whether acute or chronic can be cured or be prevented by taking proper medication, getting inoculated with vaccines timely, and maintaining personal hygiene. We also studied about some great people whose efforts have made our life longer, simpler, and healthier.
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Presentation by: Atharva Deshpande Information by: Aditya Bagdare Aman Gupta Introduction by: Avani Patidar Conclusion by: Akshay Artwani Media arrangement by: Aditya Bagdare Class: 9 Section: J Group number: 1
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