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Place a flame (e.g. from a Bunsen burner) between two charged parallel metal plates.

Investigate the motion of the flame

2 aluminium plates 30x30 cm distance between plates 5-12 cm bunsen burner

premixed flame - variable oxydation

rate variable size of flame

voltage source 0-20kV isolation box

preserves from air fluctuations

Plates

Voltage source

Bunsen burner

recorded with high speed camera 420 fps videos were analyzed

flame always leans towards the plate


oscillations start when it touches plate flame oscillates between plate and center (not between and + plate) some soot stays on plates

t = 0 ms

t = 8,3ms

t = 12,5 ms

t = 16,7 ms

t = 20,83ms

t = 25 ms

t = 29,2ms

t = 33,3 ms

t = 37,5 ms

t = 41,7 ms

t = 45,8 ms

t = 50 ms

t = 54,2 ms

t = 58,3 ms

t = 62,5 ms

t = 66,7ms

t = 70,8 ms

t = 75 ms

t = 79,2 ms

t = 83,3 ms

t = 87,5 ms

t = 91,6 ms

t = 95,8 ms

t = 100 ms

t = 104,1 ms

t = 108,3 ms

t = 112,5 ms

t = 116,6 ms

t = 120,8 ms

t = 125 ms

t = 129,1 ms

t = 133,3 ms

t = 137,5 ms

t = 141,6 ms

t = 145,81 ms

t = 150 ms

t = 154,1 ms

t = 158,3 ms

positively charged particles positive ions


e.g. CHO+, C3H3+...

Negatively charged particles


Electrons invisible for human eye

neutral thermal ionization positively charged soot

Much bigger both positive ions and electrons

black body radiation 1500 K


yellow/orange color of flame what we see as flame are soot particles

motion of the flame = motion of the soot particles

+ +

+ + + +++ + Flame consist of soot particles Thermal ionization positive soot particles +

+
+ + + + + +++ + positive soot particles are attracted to flame moves towards +

plate

plate

+
+ + + + +++ + positive soot particles are attracted to flame moves towards +

plate

plate

+
+ + + ++ + + ++ positive soot particles are attracted to flame moves towards

plate

plate

positive soot particles are attracted to flame moves towards

plate

plate

- -- -- -

equalizaing of potenital
flame touches plate soot becomes negatively charged -

- - --- -

negative soot is attracted to + plate


essenital fo the effect restoring force

- - ---

attractive forces are equal flame is in the center

- - ---

but new positive soot particles are produced

- - ---

more positive soot particles but negative soot particles stay in the flame Attractive force of positive soot particles and plate becomes dominant again

----

flame moves towards cycle is finished!

plate

thermal ionization positively charged soot


flame moves towards plate

flame touches the - plate


soot becomes negatively charged flame moves towards the + plate

- soot causes the restoring force oscillations! more + soot is produced


again

attractive force of plate becomes dominante

oxydized flame complete combustion no soot particles


flame leans towards plate due to positive ions but doesnt oscillate no effect!

If this assumption is valid:


d - half of distance between plates - mean acceleration T period

motion of the flame is not uniform assumption: we can consider mean acceleration

regular oscillations

too big distance

+
Flame moves towards plate soot is positevly charged due to thermail ionization charge doesnt depend on electric field

flame touches the plate each soot particle is now on same potential as the plate

charge of the sphere on potential U

- plate attracts + soot


+ plate attracts - soot

+ plate attracts - soot until more + soot is produced

from - plate to center

+
- - -

from center to - plate

matches with theoretical model! same value of !

in flame there are also electrons very light and small

move from flame to + plate and from plate to the flame motion of electrons between plates

Current!

- - - -

- - -

10 M

100 k

-+

mean current
peaks occur each time flame touches the plate

changed height of flame

linear dependence

Effect achieved oscillations of flame in electric field flame oscillates between plate and center negative soot particles are essential for this effect restoring force No effect in oxydized flame Designed experimental set up for recording and analyzing motion of thr flame Changed relevant parameters electric field, distance, size of flame, combustion rate

Fristrom , R. M., The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory :Flame structure studies: past, present and future, Pure & Appl. Chem., Vol. 62, No. 5, pp. 839-849, 1990 Halliday,D., Resnick,R., Walker, J. : Fundamentals of Physics, 6th Edition, 2007 Jensen, W.B. The origin of the Bunsen burner J. Chem. Educ. 82, 4, 518,2005 Onasch, Ahern, Lambe, Wright, Croasdale , Williams, Worsnop, Freedman , Davidovits, Boston College Aerodyne Research,Inc: Studies of Black Carbon Particles: Characterization and Atmospheric Processing, 2003 Wikipedia: Flame, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flame Wikipedia: Soot, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soot

Thank you for Your attention!

1)
2)

Burner is connected to plate


Burner is connected to + plate

Video spojeno na +

distance between plates is large


flame doesnt touch the plate flame just lean towards the plate - no oscillations

angle [ ]

Field [V/m]