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Place a flame (e.g. from a Bunsen burner) between two charged parallel metal plates. Investigate the motion of the flame

2 aluminium plates 30x30 cm  distance between plates 5-12 cm  bunsen burner

 premixed flame - variable oxydation

rate  variable size of flame

voltage source 0-20kV  isolation box

 preserves from air fluctuations

Plates

Voltage source

Bunsen burner

recorded with high speed camera – 420 fps  videos were analyzed


 

flame always leans towards the– plate
oscillations start when it touches – plate flame oscillates between – plate and center (not between – and + plate) some soot stays on plates

+

-

Δt = 0 ms

+

-

Δt = 8,3ms

+

-

Δt = 12,5 ms

+

-

Δt = 16,7 ms

+

-

Δt = 20,83ms

+

-

Δt = 25 ms

+

-

Δt = 29,2ms

+

-

Δt = 33,3 ms

+

-

Δt = 37,5 ms

+

-

Δt = 41,7 ms

+

-

Δt = 45,8 ms

+

-

Δt = 50 ms

+

-

Δt = 54,2 ms

+

-

Δt = 58,3 ms

+

-

Δt = 62,5 ms

+

-

Δt = 66,7ms

+

-

Δt = 70,8 ms

+

-

Δt = 75 ms

+

-

Δt = 79,2 ms

+

-

Δt = 83,3 ms

+

-

Δt = 87,5 ms

+

-

Δt = 91,6 ms

+

-

Δt = 95,8 ms

+

-

Δt = 100 ms

+

-

Δt = 104,1 ms

+

-

Δt = 108,3 ms

+

-

Δt = 112,5 ms

+

-

Δt = 116,6 ms

+

-

Δt = 120,8 ms

+

-

Δt = 125 ms

+

-

Δt = 129,1 ms

+

-

Δt = 133,3 ms

+

-

Δt = 137,5 ms

+

-

Δt = 141,6 ms

+

-

Δt = 145,81 ms

+

-

Δt = 150 ms

+

-

Δt = 154,1 ms

+

-

Δt = 158,3 ms

positively charged particles  positive ions
▪ e.g. CHO+, C3H3+...

Negatively charged particles
 Electrons ▪ ▪ invisible for human eye

  

neutral thermal ionization positively charged soot

 Much bigger both positive ions and electrons

black body radiation ≈ 1500 K
 yellow/orange color of flame  what we see as flame are soot particles

motion of the flame = motion of the soot particles

+

+ +

-

+ + + +++ +  Flame consist of soot particles Thermal ionization positive soot particles +

+

+
+ + + + + +++ +  positive soot particles are attracted to  flame moves towards +

-

-

-

plate

plate

+
+ + + + +++ +  positive soot particles are attracted to  flame moves towards +

-

-

-

plate

plate

+
+ + + ++ + + ++  positive soot particles are attracted to  flame moves towards

-

-

-

plate

plate

+

-

 positive soot particles are attracted to  flame moves towards

-

-

plate

plate

+

- -- -- -

 equalizaing of potenital
 flame touches plate  soot becomes negatively charged -

+

- - --- -

 negative soot is attracted to + plate
 essenital fo the effect – restoring force

+

- - ---

 attractive forces are equal  flame is in the center

+

- - ---

 but new positive soot particles are produced

+

- - ---

 more positive soot particles but negative soot particles stay in the flame Attractive force of positive soot particles and plate becomes dominant again

-

-

+

----

 flame moves towards  cycle is finished!

-

plate

thermal ionization – positively charged soot
 flame moves towards – plate

flame touches the - plate
 soot becomes negatively charged  flame moves towards the + plate

- soot causes the restoring force – oscillations! more + soot is produced
again

 attractive force of – plate becomes dominante

oxydized flame complete combustion  no soot particles
 

flame leans towards – plate due to positive ions but doesn’t oscillate no effect!

If this assumption is valid:
d - half of distance between plates - mean acceleration T – period

d

-

 

motion of the flame is not uniform assumption: we can consider mean acceleration

+

regular oscillations

too big distance

+
Flame moves towards – plate  soot is positevly charged due to thermail ionization  charge doesn’t depend on electric field

-

+

-

flame touches the – plate  each soot particle is now on same potential as the – plate
 

charge of the sphere on potential U

-

-

+

 - plate attracts + soot
 + plate attracts - soot

 + plate attracts - soot  until more + soot is produced

+

from - plate to center

-

-

-

+
- - -

from center to - plate

-

matches with theoretical model! same value of !

in flame there are also electrons  very light and small

move from flame to + plate and from – plate to the flame  motion of electrons between plates

 Current!

- - - -

-

-

-

- - -

-

+

-

+

10 MΩ

V

100 kΩ

-+


mean current
peaks occur each time flame touches the – plate

changed height of flame

linear dependence

  


 

Effect achieved – oscillations of flame in electric field flame oscillates between – plate and center negative soot particles are essential for this effect – restoring force No effect in oxydized flame Designed experimental set up for recording and analyzing motion of thr flame Changed relevant parameters – electric field, distance, size of flame, combustion rate

  

 

Fristrom , R. M., The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory :“Flame structure studies: past, present and future”, Pure & Appl. Chem., Vol. 62, No. 5, pp. 839-849, 1990 Halliday,D., Resnick,R., Walker, J. : Fundamentals of Physics, 6th Edition, 2007 Jensen, W.B. “The origin of the Bunsen burner” J. Chem. Educ. 82, 4, 518,2005 Onasch, Ahern, Lambe, Wright, Croasdale , Williams, Worsnop, Freedman , Davidovits, Boston College Aerodyne Research,Inc: “Studies of Black Carbon Particles: Characterization and Atmospheric Processing”, 2003 Wikipedia: Flame, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flame Wikipedia: Soot, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soot

Thank you for Your attention!

1)
2)

Burner is connected to – plate
Burner is connected to + plate

Video –spojeno na +

distance between plates is large
flame doesn’t touch the plate flame just lean towards the plate - no oscillations

α

angle α [ ° ]

Field [V/m]