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In EOQ Model, We assumed that the entire order was received at one time. However, Some Business Firms may receive their orders over a period of time.

Such cases require a different inventory model. Here, we take into account the daily production rate and daily demand rate.

Since this model is especially suitable for production environments, It is called Production Order Quantity Model. Here, we use the same approach as we used in EOQ model. Lets define the following:

p: Daily Production rate (units / day) d: Daily demand rate (units / day) t: Length of the production in days. H: Annual holding cost per unit

(Average

(Max. Inventory / 2) . H

In the period of production (until the end of each t period): Max. Inventory = (Total Produced) (Total Used) = p.t - d.t

Here, Q is the total units that are produced. Therefore, Q = p.t t = Q/p

If we replace the values of t in the Max. Inventory formula: Max. Inventory = p (Q/p) - d (Q/p) = Q - dQ/p = Q (1 d/p)

= =

(Max. Q/2 (1

Now we will set Annual Holding Cost Setup Cost Q/2 (1 d/p) . H

Annual

(D/Q) . S

This formula gives us the optimum production quantity for the Production Order Quantity Model. It is used when inventory is consumed as it is produced.

In this model, we assume that stock outs (and backordering) are allowed.

In addition to previous assumptions, we assume that sales will not be lost due to a stock out. Because, we will back order any demand that can not be fulfilled.

B: Backordering cost per unit per year b: The amount backordered at the time the next order arrives Q b: Remaining units after the backorder is satisfied

Total Annual Cost = Annual Setup Cost + Annual Holding Cost + Annual Backordering Cost

Annual Setup (Ordering) Cost = (D/Q) . S

By using the graphical ratios, we know that: T1 / T = (Q b) / Q Therefore, if we replace T1/T in the above equation we get

Average Inventory Level = (Q b)2 / 2Q

By using the graphical ratios, we know that: T2 / T = b / Q Therefore, if we replace T2/T in the above equation we get Average Backordering = b2 / 2Q and

We find optimum order quantity (Q*) and optimum backordering quantity (b*) by taking the derivatives of dTC/dQ = 0 and dTC / db = 0 and then putting the values in their places.

A quantity discount is simply a reduced price (P) for an item when it is purchased in LARGER quantities. A typical quantity discount schedule is as follows:

Since the unit cost for the Third discount is the lowest, We might be tempted to order 2000 or more units. However, this quantity might not be the one that minimizes the Total Cost. Remember that, As the quantity goes up, the holding cost increases.

Here, there is a trade off between reduced product price (P) and increased holding cost (H). Total Cost = Setup Cost + Holding Cost + Product Price (Cost) Total Cost = DS / Q + QH / 2 + PD where P is the price per unit

To determine the minimum Total Cost, we perform the following process which includes 4 steps:

I: is a percentage value, and I . P represents the holding cost as a percentage of price per unit (P).

For each discount alternative, calculate a value of Q* = [2DS / IP]1/2 Here, instead of using a value of H, the holding cost is equal to I . P That is, If the item is expensive (such as a Class A Item), Its holding cost will be higher.

Since the price of item (P) is a factor in Annual Holding Cost, we can no longer assume that the holding cost is constant (such as H) when price changes.

If the calculated optimum order quantity (Q*) is too low to qualify for the discount range, Then, Adjust the order quantity upward to the lowest quantity that will qualify for the particular discount alternative.

equation above, compute a total cost for every order quantity (Q). Use the adjusted Q values.

which has the minimum Total Cost (TC).

Example

Consider the quantity discount schedule given in the beginning (above). Assume that the Ordering (Setup) Cost (S) is $49 per each order. Annual Demand (D) is 5000 units, and Inventory carrying charge is a percentage (I=0.20) of product cost (P).

Example

minimize the total inventory cost. Answer: Step 1: Compute Q* for every discount range.

Example

Example

below allowable discount ranges. - For Q1, allowable range is 0-999. Since Q1* = 700 is between 0 and 999, It does not have to be adjusted.

Example

- For Q2, allowable range is 1000-1999. Since Q2* = 714 is not in the allowed range, we adjust it to the lowest allowable value, That is Q2* = 1000. - For Q3, allowable range is 2000-. Since Q3* = 718 is not in the allowed range, we adjust it to the lowest allowable value, That is Q3* = 2000.

Example

the order quantities (Q*)

Example

Example

will minimize the total cost. However, if the third discount cost is lowered to $4.65, selecting This discount alternative (2000 units) would be the optimum solution.

Probabilistic Models

So far we assumed that demand is constant and uniform. However, In Probabilistic models, demand is specified as a probability distribution. Uncertain demand raises the possibility of a stock out (or shortage). (Why?)

Probabilistic Models

One method of reducing stock outs is to hold extra inventory (called Safety Stock). In this case, we change the ROP formula to include that safety stock (ss).

Probabilistic Models

ROP = d . L d = daily demand, and L = Order Lead Time Now it will be as follows: ROP = d . L + (ss) where (ss) is the safety stock

Example

AMP Ltd. company determined its ROP = 50 units. Its holding cost (H) is $5 per unit per year. Its stock out cost (B) is $40 per unit. Probability of stock out is based on the following probability distribution:

Example

Example

(ss) that minimizes the total additional holding cost and Stock out costs (annually).

Example

Example

Possible stock outs per year is actually the number of orders per year (D/Q). Since it is not known (or not given) assume that it is 6 times / year. For zero safety stock, there is no additional holding cost for extra (safety) stock. But there are stock out costs for two levels:

Example

1) If demand is 60 units at the ROP, Then a shortage of 10 units will occur. (Because, ROP is 50 units) 2) If demand is 70 units at the ROP, Then a shortage of 20 units will occur.

Example

Example

The safety stock with the lowest total cost is (ss = 20) units.

Managers may want to limit the possibility of stock out only to a small percentage, say 5%.

If demand level is assumed to be a normal distribution, By using mean and standard deviation of the normal distribution, We can determine a safety stock that is necessary for %95 service level.

Example

The SAC company carries an inventory item that has a normally distributed demand. The mean demand is (=350) units and standard deviation is (=10).

Example

Example

Example

We use the properties of a standardized normal curve to get a z value that corresponds to the.95 of the curve. Using a standard Normal table we find z = 1.65 for 95% confidence.

Example

Example

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