You are on page 1of 80

# 4/30/2012 1

Trusses

4/30/2012 2
Element Formulation by Virtual Work
Use virtual work to derive element stiffness
matrix based on assumed displacements
Principle of virtual work states that if a general
structure that is in equilibrium with its applied
forces deforms due to a set of small
compatible virtual displacements, the virtual
work done is equal to its virtual strain energy
of internal stresses.
4/30/2012 3

At element level, oU
e
= oW
e

oU
e
= virtual strain energy of internal stresses
oW
e
= virtual work of external forces acting
through virtual displacements
4/30/2012 4

We now assume a simple displacement
function to define the displacement of every
material point in the element.
Usually use low order polynomials
Here
u = a
1
+ a
2
x
u is axial displacement
a
1
, a
2
are constants to be determined
x is local coordinate along member
4/30/2012 5

The constants are found by imposing the
known nodal displacements u
i
, u
j
at nodes i
and j
u
i
= a
1
+ a
2
x
i

u
j
= a
1
+ a
2
x
j

u
i
, u
j
are nodal displacements
x
i
, x
j
are nodal coordinates
4/30/2012 6

letting x
i
= 0, x
j
= L, we get
a
1
= u
i

a
2
= (u
j
-u
i
)/L
We can write
[N] = matrix of element shape functions or
interpolation functions
{d} = nodal displacements
u
x
L
x
L
u
u
d
i
j
=

`
)
= 1 []{} N
4/30/2012 7
| | | |
1 2
1
2
i
i
1 2
N N N
x
N 1 ,
L
x
N
L
Pr operties
N 1 at node i and zero at all other nodes
N 1
i.e. at any point in the element N N 1

=
=
=
=
=
+ =
N
1
=1
Variation of N
1
Variation of N
2
N
2
=1
4/30/2012 8

Strain is given by
where [B] is a matrix relating strain to
nodal displacement (matrix of derivatives
of shape function)
| | | |
du d[N]
{d} [B]{d}
dx dx
1
B 1 1
L
c = = =
=
4/30/2012 9

Now
o = E(c c
o
)= E[B]{d}-E c
o

Stress and strain are constant in a member
Define internal virtual strain energy for a
set of virtual displacements {od} to be
T
e V
U ( ) dV
}
o = oc o
4/30/2012 10

oc = virtual strain
o = stress level at equilibrium
dV = volume
Virtual work of nodal forces is
oW
e
= {od}
T
{f}
Then, virtual work is given by
( ) { } { }
T T
V
dv d f
}
oc o = o
4/30/2012 11

Substituting and rearranging gives

Canceling {od}
T
gives [k]{d}={F} where
( ) ( )
T
T
o V
T T T T T
o V V
[B]{ d} E[B]{d} E dV { d} {f}
{ d} [B] E[B]{d}dV { d} [B] E dv { d} {f}
}
} }
o c = o
o = o c + o
[] [] [] k BB =
}
T
V
EdV
{ } { }
o
1
F f EA
1

= + c
`
)
o
T c = o
For thermal problem
4/30/2012 12

for a truss we get
this formulation method also applies to 2-d
and 3-d elements
[ ] k=

(
EA
L
1 1
1 1
4/30/2012 13
Procedure for Direct Stiffness Method (Displacement Method)
1. Discretize into finite elements, Identify nodes, elements
and number them in order.

2. Develop element stiffness matrices [K
e
] for all the
elements.

3. Assemble element stiffness matrices to get the global
stiffness matrix ([K
G
] =E [K
e
]). The size of of global
stiffness matrix = total d.o.f of the structure including at
boundary nodes. Assembly is done by matching element
displacement with global displacements. Also develop
appropriate force vector (by adding element force vectors)
such that equation of the type [K
G
] {u}={F} is obtained.

4/30/2012 14

4. Apply kinematic boundary conditions. Without applying
boundary conditions, [K
G
] will be singular. (minimum
number of boundary conditions required is to arrest Rigid
Body displacements).

5. Solve for unknown displacements {u} ( {u}= [K
G
]
1
{F}).

6. Once displacements are determined find
(a) reactions by picking up appropriate rows from the
equation {F}=[K
G
] {u}, (b) Find element forces {f}=[K
e
]
{u
e
}, (c) Element stresses given by {o
e
}= [D][B]{u
e
}.
Procedure for Direct Stiffness Method
4/30/2012 15
1 2
3
F
1
, u
1
F
2
, u
2 F
3
, u
3
Boundary Conditions
u
1
=0, u
2
=0
4/30/2012 16
| |
G
2 -2
AE
K -2 2+1 -1
L
-1 1
(
(
=
(
(

2A, L, E
A, L, E
4/30/2012 17
4/30/2012 18
{
Reactions

{ } | |
{ } | |
1
3
0
AE PL 2P
F 2 -2 0 1
L 3AE 3
0
0
AE PL P
F 0 -1 1 1
L 3AE 3
0

= =
`

)

= =
`

)
4/30/2012 19
Element Forces
1 1
2 2
2 1
3 2
Element 1
f u 1 -1
2AE
f -1 1 u L
1 -1 0 2p/ 3
2AE PL

-1 1 1 2p/ 3 L 3AE
Element 2
u f 1 -1
AE
u f -1 1 L
1 -1
AE
=
-1 L
(
=
` `
(
) )

(
=
` `
(
) )
(
=
` `
(
) )
1 p/ 3
PL
1 0 p/ 3 3AE
(
=
` `
(

) )
A, L, E
f
1
f
2
2A, L, E
2P
3
2P
3
A, L, E
P
3
P
3
4/30/2012 20
4/30/2012 21
4/30/2012 22
4/30/2012 23
| | | |
1 2
Element 1 Element 2

1 1 1 1
AE AE
K K
1 1 1 1 L L

( (
= =
( (

u
1
u
2
u
2
u
3
4/30/2012 24
4/30/2012 25
4/30/2012 26
4/30/2012 27
1 1
1 1
2 2
4 2
2 1
2 2
2 2
3 3
4
3 2
Stress in element 1
u u
1 1
E EB E
u u L L
u u 1.5 0
= E 2.0 10 200N/ mm
L 150
Stress in element 2
u u
1 1
E EB E
u u L L
u u 1.2 1.5
= E 2.0 10
L 150

(
o = c = =
` `
(

) )

= =

(
o = c = =
` `
(

) )

= =
2
40N/ mm
4/30/2012 28
Direct Element Formulation
truss element acts like 1-d spring
l >> transverse dimensions
pinned connection to other members (only
axial loading).
usually constant cross section and modulus of
elasticity
4/30/2012 29

A = cross section area
E = modulus of elasticity
L = length
k
AE
L
=
4/30/2012 30

Assume displacements are much smaller
than overall geometry
vertical displacements of horizontal member
produce no vertical force
Stiffness matrix is written in local element
coordinates aligned along element axis
want stiffness matrix for arbitrary
orientation
4/30/2012 31

rotate coordinate systems using rotation
matrix [R]
displacement components in global
coordinates are related to displacement
components in local coordinates by
{d}=[R]{d}
{d} = displacement in global coordinates
{d} = displacement in local element
coordinates
4/30/2012 32
L
AE
x
y
i
j
u
i u
i
v
i
v
j
p
i
P
j
q
i
q
j
u
i=1
p
i
= k=AE / L
p
j =
k = AE / L
q
i = 0
q
j = 0
st
k
0
1 column
k
0

( =
`

)
u
i=1
p
i
= k=AE / L
q
i = 0
q
j = 0
rd
k
0
3 column
k
0

( =
`

)
4/30/2012 33
v
j =1
q
i = 0
q
j = 0
p
j = 0
p
i = 0
th
0
0
4 column
0
0

( =
`

)
nd
0
0
2 column
0
0

( =
`

)
v
i =1
q
i = 0
q
j = 0
p
j = 0
p
i = 0
4/30/2012 34

start with member on x axis, element
equations are

or {k}{d}={f}
Note that y equations are all zero
i i
i i
j j
j j
u' p'
k 0 k 0
v' q'
0 0 0 0
u' p'
k 0 k 0
v' q'
0 0 0 0

(

(

(
=
` `

(

(

) )
4/30/2012 35

p
i
u
i
x
x
y
y
p
j
u
j
v
j
q
i
v
i
q
j
p

i
u

i
u

j
p

j
q

i
v

i
q

j
v

j
u
i i i i i i
i i i i i i
at node i
u' u cos( ) v sin( ) p' p cos( ) q sin( )
v' u sin( ) v cos( ) q' q sin( ) q cos( )
= u + u = u + u
= u + u = u + u
4/30/2012 36
i i
i i
u' u cos sin
v' sin cos v
u u
(
=
` `
(
u u
) )
At node i
i i
i i
p' p cos sin
q' sin cos q
u u
(
=
` `
(
u u
) )
A similar matrix can be obtained at node j
i i
i i
j j
j
u' u
cos sin 0 0
v' v
sin cos 0 0
u' u
0 0 cos sin
0 0 sin cos v'

u u
(

(
u u

(
=
`
u u (

(

u u

)
j
v

`

)
4/30/2012 37

Matrix [R] is:
cos sin
sin cos
cos sin
sin cos
u u
u u
u u
u u
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0

(
(
(
(
=

(
(
(
(
c s
s c
c s
s c
4/30/2012 38

Similarly , force components are related by
{f} = [R]{f}
Local force displacement relation is
[k]{d} = {f}
global force displacement relation is
[k][R]{d} = [R]{f}
using fact that [R]
-1
= [R]
T
, we get
[R]
T
[k][R]{d} = {f}
4/30/2012 39

then [k] = stiffness matrix in global
coordinates is [R]
T
[k][R]
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
c cs c cs
cs s cs s
[k] k
c cs c cs
cs s cs s
(

(

(
=
(

(

(

4/30/2012 40
Structure equation is [k] {D} = {F}
[k] = structure stiffness matrix
{D} = nodal displacement vector
{F} = applied load vector

' '
i j i i i
i
i
i
i
j
j
DB{u u } note u' u cos( ) v sin( )
u
={c s}
v
u
v
c s 0 0
-1 1
E
u
0 0 c s L L
v
o = = u + u

`
)

(
o =
` `
(

)

)
{ }
i
i
j
j
u
v
E
c -s c s
u
L
v

=
`

)
4/30/2012 41
4/30/2012 42
2
2
E l e m e n t
i - n o d e
C o o r d i n a t e
x
y
C o o r d i n a t e
x
y
L e n g t h
j - n o d e C
s
1
1
0 0
2
L c o s 4 5 L s i n 4 5 c o s 4 5
s i n 4 5
L
3 0
2 L s i n 4 5
2 L c o s 4 5
L s i n 4 5
L
c o s 4 5 -s i n 4 5
[ ' ] k k
c cs c cs
cs s cs s
c cs c cs
cs s cs s
=

(
(
(
(
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
( ) ( )
j i j i
2 2
j i j i
x x y y
C , m
L L
L x x y y

= =
= +
4/30/2012 43
4/30/2012 44
4/30/2012 45
4/30/2012 46
4/30/2012 47
4/30/2012 48
4/30/2012 49
4/30/2012 50
4/30/2012 51
u
3
o = o =
v
3
u
u
3
v
3
4/30/2012 52
4/30/2012 53
4/30/2012 54
4/30/2012 55
Finite Element Model
usually use existing codes to solve
problems
user responsible for
creating the model
executing the program
interpreting the results
4/30/2012 56

arrangement of nodes and elements is
known as the mesh
plan to make the mesh model the structure
as accurately as possible
4/30/2012 57

for a truss
each member is modeled as 1 truss element
truss members or elements are connected at
nodes
node connections behave like pin joints
truss element behaves in exact agreement with
assumptions
no need to divide a member into more than 1
element
4/30/2012 58

such subdivision will cause execution to fail
due to zero stiffness against lateral force at the node
connection where 2 members are in axial alignment
4/30/2012 59

4/30/2012 60
there is geometric symmetry
often possible to reduce the size of problem by
using symmetry
need loading symmetry as well
4/30/2012 61

4/30/2012 62
Fig. 3-5 and 3-6 show symmetric loads and
the reduced model
need to impose extra conditions along the line
of symmetry
displacement constraints: nodes along the line of
symmetry must always move along that line
changed loads: the load at the line of symmetry is
split in two
4/30/2012 63
Computer input assistance
a preprocessor is used to assist user input
required inputs are
data to locate nodes in space
definition of elements by node numbers
type of analysis to be done
material properties
displacement conditions
applied loads
4/30/2012 64

interactive preprocessors are preferable
you can see each node as it is created
elements are displayed as they are created
symbols are given for displacement and load
conditions
usually allow mesh generation by replication or
interpolation of an existing mesh
allow inserting nodes along lines
allow entering a grid by minimum and
maximum positions plus a grid spacing
4/30/2012 65

truss element consists of 2 node numbers
that connect to form element
other information for truss is
modulus of elasticity
cross sectional area
data can form a material table
assign element data by reference to the
table
4/30/2012 66

boundary or displacement conditions are set
by selecting a node and setting its
displacement
do not over constrain a structure by
prescribing zero displacements where there
is no physical support
4/30/2012 67

loading conditions are set by selecting
nodes and specifying force or moment
components
check model carefully at this point
4/30/2012 68
Analysis Step
mostly transparent to user
small truss models have enough accuracy
and performance for an accurate solution
a large model has a large number of
elements and nodes
4/30/2012 69

numerical solution may not be accurate if
there are full matrices
get better accuracy if the nonzero terms are
close to the diagonal
reduces the number of operations and round off
error (banded matrix)
4/30/2012 70

in FE model, element or node numbering
can affect bandwidth
good numbering pattern can minimize
bandwidth
different methods based on node or element
numbering
to minimize, plan numbering pattern so nodes
that connect through an element have their
equations assembled close together
4/30/2012 71

In Fig. 3-7, node numbers are considered,
Xs show nonzero terms
4/30/2012 72
In Fig. 3-8, node numbers are considered
4/30/2012 73

many programs have bandwidth or
wavefront minimizers available
most programs will keep original
numbering for display but use the
minimized number scheme
4/30/2012 74

numerical algorithms, numerical range of
the computer affect solution
relative stiffness of members can influence
results
problems when members of high and low
stiffness connect
can exceed precision of computer
physical situation is usually undesirable
4/30/2012 75

Approximation error for truss is zero
Most common error messages (errors) come
from
incorrect definition of elements
incorrect application of displacement boundary
conditions
4/30/2012 76

may get non-positive definite structure stiffness
matrix from not enough boundary conditions to
prevent rigid body motion
two elements connect in-line zero lateral
stiffness
truss structure not kinematically stable (linkage)
4/30/2012 77

next look at stress components
in continua, stress components are related to
averaged quantities at the nodes
trusses have a stress in each member (not easy
to plot)
truss model is exact so it does not usually
need refinement
4/30/2012 78
Output Processing and Evaluation
Get numerical results with input data
followed by all nodal displacements and
element stresses
first graphic to look at is the deformed
shape of the structure
nodal displacements are exaggerated to show
structure deformation
check to ensure model behaves as expected
4/30/2012 79

linear elastic analysis, failure is by
overstressing
buckling (have to find members with
significant compression and use Euler's
buckling equation)
4/30/2012 80
Final Remarks
few situations where a truss element is the
right element for modeling behavior