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Trusses

4/30/2012 2

Element Formulation by Virtual Work

Use virtual work to derive element stiffness

matrix based on assumed displacements

Principle of virtual work states that if a general

structure that is in equilibrium with its applied

forces deforms due to a set of small

compatible virtual displacements, the virtual

work done is equal to its virtual strain energy

of internal stresses.

4/30/2012 3

At element level, oU

e

= oW

e

oU

e

= virtual strain energy of internal stresses

oW

e

= virtual work of external forces acting

through virtual displacements

4/30/2012 4

We now assume a simple displacement

function to define the displacement of every

material point in the element.

Usually use low order polynomials

Here

u = a

1

+ a

2

x

u is axial displacement

a

1

, a

2

are constants to be determined

x is local coordinate along member

4/30/2012 5

The constants are found by imposing the

known nodal displacements u

i

, u

j

at nodes i

and j

u

i

= a

1

+ a

2

x

i

u

j

= a

1

+ a

2

x

j

u

i

, u

j

are nodal displacements

x

i

, x

j

are nodal coordinates

4/30/2012 6

letting x

i

= 0, x

j

= L, we get

a

1

= u

i

a

2

= (u

j

-u

i

)/L

We can write

[N] = matrix of element shape functions or

interpolation functions

{d} = nodal displacements

u

x

L

x

L

u

u

d

i

j

=

`

)

= 1 []{} N

4/30/2012 7

| | | |

1 2

1

2

i

i

1 2

N N N

x

N 1 ,

L

x

N

L

Pr operties

N 1 at node i and zero at all other nodes

N 1

i.e. at any point in the element N N 1

=

=

=

=

=

+ =

N

1

=1

Variation of N

1

Variation of N

2

N

2

=1

4/30/2012 8

Strain is given by

where [B] is a matrix relating strain to

nodal displacement (matrix of derivatives

of shape function)

| | | |

du d[N]

{d} [B]{d}

dx dx

1

B 1 1

L

c = = =

=

4/30/2012 9

Now

o = E(c c

o

)= E[B]{d}-E c

o

Stress and strain are constant in a member

Define internal virtual strain energy for a

set of virtual displacements {od} to be

T

e V

U ( ) dV

}

o = oc o

4/30/2012 10

oc = virtual strain

o = stress level at equilibrium

dV = volume

Virtual work of nodal forces is

oW

e

= {od}

T

{f}

Then, virtual work is given by

( ) { } { }

T T

V

dv d f

}

oc o = o

4/30/2012 11

Substituting and rearranging gives

Canceling {od}

T

gives [k]{d}={F} where

( ) ( )

T

T

o V

T T T T T

o V V

[B]{ d} E[B]{d} E dV { d} {f}

{ d} [B] E[B]{d}dV { d} [B] E dv { d} {f}

}

} }

o c = o

o = o c + o

[] [] [] k BB =

}

T

V

EdV

{ } { }

o

1

F f EA

1

= + c

`

)

o

T c = o

For thermal problem

4/30/2012 12

for a truss we get

this formulation method also applies to 2-d

and 3-d elements

[ ] k=

(

EA

L

1 1

1 1

4/30/2012 13

Procedure for Direct Stiffness Method (Displacement Method)

1. Discretize into finite elements, Identify nodes, elements

and number them in order.

2. Develop element stiffness matrices [K

e

] for all the

elements.

3. Assemble element stiffness matrices to get the global

stiffness matrix ([K

G

] =E [K

e

]). The size of of global

stiffness matrix = total d.o.f of the structure including at

boundary nodes. Assembly is done by matching element

displacement with global displacements. Also develop

appropriate force vector (by adding element force vectors)

such that equation of the type [K

G

] {u}={F} is obtained.

4/30/2012 14

4. Apply kinematic boundary conditions. Without applying

boundary conditions, [K

G

] will be singular. (minimum

number of boundary conditions required is to arrest Rigid

Body displacements).

5. Solve for unknown displacements {u} ( {u}= [K

G

]

1

{F}).

6. Once displacements are determined find

(a) reactions by picking up appropriate rows from the

equation {F}=[K

G

] {u}, (b) Find element forces {f}=[K

e

]

{u

e

}, (c) Element stresses given by {o

e

}= [D][B]{u

e

}.

Procedure for Direct Stiffness Method

4/30/2012 15

1 2

3

F

1

, u

1

F

2

, u

2 F

3

, u

3

Boundary Conditions

u

1

=0, u

2

=0

4/30/2012 16

| |

G

2 -2

AE

K -2 2+1 -1

L

-1 1

(

(

=

(

(

2A, L, E

A, L, E

4/30/2012 17

4/30/2012 18

{

Reactions

{ } | |

{ } | |

1

3

0

AE PL 2P

F 2 -2 0 1

L 3AE 3

0

0

AE PL P

F 0 -1 1 1

L 3AE 3

0

= =

`

)

= =

`

)

4/30/2012 19

Element Forces

1 1

2 2

2 1

3 2

Element 1

f u 1 -1

2AE

f -1 1 u L

1 -1 0 2p/ 3

2AE PL

-1 1 1 2p/ 3 L 3AE

Element 2

u f 1 -1

AE

u f -1 1 L

1 -1

AE

=

-1 L

(

=

` `

(

) )

(

=

` `

(

) )

(

=

` `

(

) )

1 p/ 3

PL

1 0 p/ 3 3AE

(

=

` `

(

) )

A, L, E

f

1

f

2

2A, L, E

2P

3

2P

3

A, L, E

P

3

P

3

4/30/2012 20

4/30/2012 21

4/30/2012 22

4/30/2012 23

| | | |

1 2

Element 1 Element 2

1 1 1 1

AE AE

K K

1 1 1 1 L L

( (

= =

( (

u

1

u

2

u

2

u

3

4/30/2012 24

4/30/2012 25

4/30/2012 26

4/30/2012 27

1 1

1 1

2 2

4 2

2 1

2 2

2 2

3 3

4

3 2

Stress in element 1

u u

1 1

E EB E

u u L L

u u 1.5 0

= E 2.0 10 200N/ mm

L 150

Stress in element 2

u u

1 1

E EB E

u u L L

u u 1.2 1.5

= E 2.0 10

L 150

(

o = c = =

` `

(

) )

= =

(

o = c = =

` `

(

) )

= =

2

40N/ mm

4/30/2012 28

Direct Element Formulation

truss element acts like 1-d spring

l >> transverse dimensions

pinned connection to other members (only

axial loading).

usually constant cross section and modulus of

elasticity

4/30/2012 29

A = cross section area

E = modulus of elasticity

L = length

k

AE

L

=

4/30/2012 30

Assume displacements are much smaller

than overall geometry

vertical displacements of horizontal member

produce no vertical force

Stiffness matrix is written in local element

coordinates aligned along element axis

want stiffness matrix for arbitrary

orientation

4/30/2012 31

rotate coordinate systems using rotation

matrix [R]

displacement components in global

coordinates are related to displacement

components in local coordinates by

{d}=[R]{d}

{d} = displacement in global coordinates

{d} = displacement in local element

coordinates

4/30/2012 32

L

AE

x

y

i

j

u

i u

i

v

i

v

j

p

i

P

j

q

i

q

j

u

i=1

p

i

= k=AE / L

p

j =

k = AE / L

q

i = 0

q

j = 0

st

k

0

1 column

k

0

( =

`

)

u

i=1

p

i

= k=AE / L

q

i = 0

q

j = 0

rd

k

0

3 column

k

0

( =

`

)

4/30/2012 33

v

j =1

q

i = 0

q

j = 0

p

j = 0

p

i = 0

th

0

0

4 column

0

0

( =

`

)

nd

0

0

2 column

0

0

( =

`

)

v

i =1

q

i = 0

q

j = 0

p

j = 0

p

i = 0

4/30/2012 34

start with member on x axis, element

equations are

or {k}{d}={f}

Note that y equations are all zero

i i

i i

j j

j j

u' p'

k 0 k 0

v' q'

0 0 0 0

u' p'

k 0 k 0

v' q'

0 0 0 0

(

(

(

=

` `

(

(

) )

4/30/2012 35

p

i

u

i

x

x

y

y

p

j

u

j

v

j

q

i

v

i

q

j

p

i

u

i

u

j

p

j

q

i

v

i

q

j

v

j

u

i i i i i i

i i i i i i

at node i

u' u cos( ) v sin( ) p' p cos( ) q sin( )

v' u sin( ) v cos( ) q' q sin( ) q cos( )

= u + u = u + u

= u + u = u + u

4/30/2012 36

i i

i i

u' u cos sin

v' sin cos v

u u

(

=

` `

(

u u

) )

At node i

i i

i i

p' p cos sin

q' sin cos q

u u

(

=

` `

(

u u

) )

A similar matrix can be obtained at node j

i i

i i

j j

j

u' u

cos sin 0 0

v' v

sin cos 0 0

u' u

0 0 cos sin

0 0 sin cos v'

u u

(

(

u u

(

=

`

u u (

(

u u

)

j

v

`

)

4/30/2012 37

Matrix [R] is:

cos sin

sin cos

cos sin

sin cos

u u

u u

u u

u u

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

(

(

(

(

=

(

(

(

(

c s

s c

c s

s c

4/30/2012 38

Similarly , force components are related by

{f} = [R]{f}

Local force displacement relation is

[k]{d} = {f}

global force displacement relation is

[k][R]{d} = [R]{f}

using fact that [R]

-1

= [R]

T

, we get

[R]

T

[k][R]{d} = {f}

4/30/2012 39

then [k] = stiffness matrix in global

coordinates is [R]

T

[k][R]

2 2

2 2

2 2

2 2

c cs c cs

cs s cs s

[k] k

c cs c cs

cs s cs s

(

(

(

=

(

(

(

4/30/2012 40

Structure equation is [k] {D} = {F}

[k] = structure stiffness matrix

{D} = nodal displacement vector

{F} = applied load vector

' '

i j i i i

i

i

i

i

j

j

DB{u u } note u' u cos( ) v sin( )

u

={c s}

v

u

v

c s 0 0

-1 1

E

u

0 0 c s L L

v

o = = u + u

`

)

(

o =

` `

(

)

)

{ }

i

i

j

j

u

v

E

c -s c s

u

L

v

=

`

)

4/30/2012 41

4/30/2012 42

2

2

E l e m e n t

i - n o d e

C o o r d i n a t e

x

y

C o o r d i n a t e

x

y

L e n g t h

j - n o d e C

s

1

1

0 0

2

L c o s 4 5 L s i n 4 5 c o s 4 5

s i n 4 5

L

3 0

2 L s i n 4 5

2 L c o s 4 5

L s i n 4 5

L

c o s 4 5 -s i n 4 5

[ ' ] k k

c cs c cs

cs s cs s

c cs c cs

cs s cs s

=

(

(

(

(

2 2

2 2

2 2

2 2

( ) ( )

j i j i

2 2

j i j i

x x y y

C , m

L L

L x x y y

= =

= +

4/30/2012 43

4/30/2012 44

4/30/2012 45

4/30/2012 46

4/30/2012 47

4/30/2012 48

4/30/2012 49

4/30/2012 50

4/30/2012 51

u

3

o = o =

v

3

u

u

3

v

3

4/30/2012 52

4/30/2012 53

4/30/2012 54

4/30/2012 55

Finite Element Model

usually use existing codes to solve

problems

user responsible for

creating the model

executing the program

interpreting the results

4/30/2012 56

arrangement of nodes and elements is

known as the mesh

plan to make the mesh model the structure

as accurately as possible

4/30/2012 57

for a truss

each member is modeled as 1 truss element

truss members or elements are connected at

nodes

node connections behave like pin joints

truss element behaves in exact agreement with

assumptions

no need to divide a member into more than 1

element

4/30/2012 58

such subdivision will cause execution to fail

due to zero stiffness against lateral force at the node

connection where 2 members are in axial alignment

4/30/2012 59

4/30/2012 60

there is geometric symmetry

often possible to reduce the size of problem by

using symmetry

need loading symmetry as well

4/30/2012 61

4/30/2012 62

Fig. 3-5 and 3-6 show symmetric loads and

the reduced model

need to impose extra conditions along the line

of symmetry

displacement constraints: nodes along the line of

symmetry must always move along that line

changed loads: the load at the line of symmetry is

split in two

4/30/2012 63

Computer input assistance

a preprocessor is used to assist user input

required inputs are

data to locate nodes in space

definition of elements by node numbers

type of analysis to be done

material properties

displacement conditions

applied loads

4/30/2012 64

interactive preprocessors are preferable

you can see each node as it is created

elements are displayed as they are created

symbols are given for displacement and load

conditions

usually allow mesh generation by replication or

interpolation of an existing mesh

allow inserting nodes along lines

allow entering a grid by minimum and

maximum positions plus a grid spacing

4/30/2012 65

truss element consists of 2 node numbers

that connect to form element

other information for truss is

modulus of elasticity

cross sectional area

data can form a material table

assign element data by reference to the

table

4/30/2012 66

boundary or displacement conditions are set

by selecting a node and setting its

displacement

do not over constrain a structure by

prescribing zero displacements where there

is no physical support

4/30/2012 67

loading conditions are set by selecting

nodes and specifying force or moment

components

check model carefully at this point

4/30/2012 68

Analysis Step

mostly transparent to user

small truss models have enough accuracy

and performance for an accurate solution

a large model has a large number of

elements and nodes

4/30/2012 69

numerical solution may not be accurate if

there are full matrices

get better accuracy if the nonzero terms are

close to the diagonal

reduces the number of operations and round off

error (banded matrix)

4/30/2012 70

in FE model, element or node numbering

can affect bandwidth

good numbering pattern can minimize

bandwidth

different methods based on node or element

numbering

to minimize, plan numbering pattern so nodes

that connect through an element have their

equations assembled close together

4/30/2012 71

In Fig. 3-7, node numbers are considered,

Xs show nonzero terms

4/30/2012 72

In Fig. 3-8, node numbers are considered

4/30/2012 73

many programs have bandwidth or

wavefront minimizers available

most programs will keep original

numbering for display but use the

minimized number scheme

4/30/2012 74

numerical algorithms, numerical range of

the computer affect solution

relative stiffness of members can influence

results

problems when members of high and low

stiffness connect

can exceed precision of computer

physical situation is usually undesirable

4/30/2012 75

Approximation error for truss is zero

Most common error messages (errors) come

from

incorrect definition of elements

incorrect application of displacement boundary

conditions

4/30/2012 76

may get non-positive definite structure stiffness

matrix from not enough boundary conditions to

prevent rigid body motion

two elements connect in-line zero lateral

stiffness

truss structure not kinematically stable (linkage)

4/30/2012 77

next look at stress components

in continua, stress components are related to

averaged quantities at the nodes

trusses have a stress in each member (not easy

to plot)

truss model is exact so it does not usually

need refinement

4/30/2012 78

Output Processing and Evaluation

Get numerical results with input data

followed by all nodal displacements and

element stresses

first graphic to look at is the deformed

shape of the structure

nodal displacements are exaggerated to show

structure deformation

check to ensure model behaves as expected

4/30/2012 79

linear elastic analysis, failure is by

overstressing

buckling (have to find members with

significant compression and use Euler's

buckling equation)

4/30/2012 80

Final Remarks

few situations where a truss element is the

right element for modeling behavior

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