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4/30/2012 1

Trusses

4/30/2012 2
Element Formulation by Virtual Work
Use virtual work to derive element stiffness
matrix based on assumed displacements
Principle of virtual work states that if a general
structure that is in equilibrium with its applied
forces deforms due to a set of small
compatible virtual displacements, the virtual
work done is equal to its virtual strain energy
of internal stresses.
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At element level, oU
e
= oW
e

oU
e
= virtual strain energy of internal stresses
oW
e
= virtual work of external forces acting
through virtual displacements
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We now assume a simple displacement
function to define the displacement of every
material point in the element.
Usually use low order polynomials
Here
u = a
1
+ a
2
x
u is axial displacement
a
1
, a
2
are constants to be determined
x is local coordinate along member
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The constants are found by imposing the
known nodal displacements u
i
, u
j
at nodes i
and j
u
i
= a
1
+ a
2
x
i

u
j
= a
1
+ a
2
x
j

u
i
, u
j
are nodal displacements
x
i
, x
j
are nodal coordinates
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letting x
i
= 0, x
j
= L, we get
a
1
= u
i

a
2
= (u
j
-u
i
)/L
We can write
[N] = matrix of element shape functions or
interpolation functions
{d} = nodal displacements
u
x
L
x
L
u
u
d
i
j
=

`
)
= 1 []{} N
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| | | |
1 2
1
2
i
i
1 2
N N N
x
N 1 ,
L
x
N
L
Pr operties
N 1 at node i and zero at all other nodes
N 1
i.e. at any point in the element N N 1

=
=
=
=
=
+ =
N
1
=1
Variation of N
1
Variation of N
2
N
2
=1
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Strain is given by
where [B] is a matrix relating strain to
nodal displacement (matrix of derivatives
of shape function)
| | | |
du d[N]
{d} [B]{d}
dx dx
1
B 1 1
L
c = = =
=
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Now
o = E(c c
o
)= E[B]{d}-E c
o

Stress and strain are constant in a member
Define internal virtual strain energy for a
set of virtual displacements {od} to be
T
e V
U ( ) dV
}
o = oc o
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oc = virtual strain
o = stress level at equilibrium
dV = volume
Virtual work of nodal forces is
oW
e
= {od}
T
{f}
Then, virtual work is given by
( ) { } { }
T T
V
dv d f
}
oc o = o
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Substituting and rearranging gives



Canceling {od}
T
gives [k]{d}={F} where
( ) ( )
T
T
o V
T T T T T
o V V
[B]{ d} E[B]{d} E dV { d} {f}
{ d} [B] E[B]{d}dV { d} [B] E dv { d} {f}
}
} }
o c = o
o = o c + o
[] [] [] k BB =
}
T
V
EdV
{ } { }
o
1
F f EA
1


= + c
`
)
o
T c = o
For thermal problem
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for a truss we get
this formulation method also applies to 2-d
and 3-d elements
[ ] k=

(
EA
L
1 1
1 1
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Procedure for Direct Stiffness Method (Displacement Method)
1. Discretize into finite elements, Identify nodes, elements
and number them in order.

2. Develop element stiffness matrices [K
e
] for all the
elements.

3. Assemble element stiffness matrices to get the global
stiffness matrix ([K
G
] =E [K
e
]). The size of of global
stiffness matrix = total d.o.f of the structure including at
boundary nodes. Assembly is done by matching element
displacement with global displacements. Also develop
appropriate force vector (by adding element force vectors)
such that equation of the type [K
G
] {u}={F} is obtained.

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4. Apply kinematic boundary conditions. Without applying
boundary conditions, [K
G
] will be singular. (minimum
number of boundary conditions required is to arrest Rigid
Body displacements).

5. Solve for unknown displacements {u} ( {u}= [K
G
]
1
{F}).

6. Once displacements are determined find
(a) reactions by picking up appropriate rows from the
equation {F}=[K
G
] {u}, (b) Find element forces {f}=[K
e
]
{u
e
}, (c) Element stresses given by {o
e
}= [D][B]{u
e
}.
Procedure for Direct Stiffness Method
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1 2
3
F
1
, u
1
F
2
, u
2 F
3
, u
3
Boundary Conditions
u
1
=0, u
2
=0
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| |
G
2 -2
AE
K -2 2+1 -1
L
-1 1
(
(
=
(
(

2A, L, E
A, L, E
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{
Reactions

{ } | |
{ } | |
1
3
0
AE PL 2P
F 2 -2 0 1
L 3AE 3
0
0
AE PL P
F 0 -1 1 1
L 3AE 3
0


= =
`

)


= =
`

)
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Element Forces
1 1
2 2
2 1
3 2
Element 1
f u 1 -1
2AE
f -1 1 u L
1 -1 0 2p/ 3
2AE PL

-1 1 1 2p/ 3 L 3AE
Element 2
u f 1 -1
AE
u f -1 1 L
1 -1
AE
=
-1 L
(
=
` `
(
) )

(
=
` `
(
) )
(
=
` `
(
) )
1 p/ 3
PL
1 0 p/ 3 3AE
(
=
` `
(

) )
A, L, E
f
1
f
2
2A, L, E
2P
3
2P
3
A, L, E
P
3
P
3
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| | | |
1 2
Element 1 Element 2

1 1 1 1
AE AE
K K
1 1 1 1 L L

( (
= =
( (


u
1
u
2
u
2
u
3
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1 1
1 1
2 2
4 2
2 1
2 2
2 2
3 3
4
3 2
Stress in element 1
u u
1 1
E EB E
u u L L
u u 1.5 0
= E 2.0 10 200N/ mm
L 150
Stress in element 2
u u
1 1
E EB E
u u L L
u u 1.2 1.5
= E 2.0 10
L 150

(
o = c = =
` `
(

) )

= =

(
o = c = =
` `
(

) )

= =
2
40N/ mm
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Direct Element Formulation
truss element acts like 1-d spring
l >> transverse dimensions
pinned connection to other members (only
axial loading).
usually constant cross section and modulus of
elasticity
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A = cross section area
E = modulus of elasticity
L = length
k
AE
L
=
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Assume displacements are much smaller
than overall geometry
vertical displacements of horizontal member
produce no vertical force
Stiffness matrix is written in local element
coordinates aligned along element axis
want stiffness matrix for arbitrary
orientation
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rotate coordinate systems using rotation
matrix [R]
displacement components in global
coordinates are related to displacement
components in local coordinates by
{d}=[R]{d}
{d} = displacement in global coordinates
{d} = displacement in local element
coordinates
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L
AE
x
y
i
j
u
i u
i
v
i
v
j
p
i
P
j
q
i
q
j
u
i=1
p
i
= k=AE / L
p
j =
k = AE / L
q
i = 0
q
j = 0
st
k
0
1 column
k
0



( =
`




)
u
i=1
p
i
= k=AE / L
q
i = 0
q
j = 0
rd
k
0
3 column
k
0




( =
`



)
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v
j =1
q
i = 0
q
j = 0
p
j = 0
p
i = 0
th
0
0
4 column
0
0



( =
`



)
nd
0
0
2 column
0
0



( =
`



)
v
i =1
q
i = 0
q
j = 0
p
j = 0
p
i = 0
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start with member on x axis, element
equations are




or {k}{d}={f}
Note that y equations are all zero
i i
i i
j j
j j
u' p'
k 0 k 0
v' q'
0 0 0 0
u' p'
k 0 k 0
v' q'
0 0 0 0

(

(

(
=
` `

(

(


) )
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p
i
u
i
x
x
y
y
p
j
u
j
v
j
q
i
v
i
q
j
p

i
u

i
u

j
p

j
q

i
v

i
q

j
v

j
u
i i i i i i
i i i i i i
at node i
u' u cos( ) v sin( ) p' p cos( ) q sin( )
v' u sin( ) v cos( ) q' q sin( ) q cos( )
= u + u = u + u
= u + u = u + u
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i i
i i
u' u cos sin
v' sin cos v
u u
(
=
` `
(
u u
) )
At node i
i i
i i
p' p cos sin
q' sin cos q
u u
(
=
` `
(
u u
) )
A similar matrix can be obtained at node j
i i
i i
j j
j
u' u
cos sin 0 0
v' v
sin cos 0 0
u' u
0 0 cos sin
0 0 sin cos v'

u u
(

(
u u

(
=
`
u u (

(

u u

)
j
v



`


)
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Matrix [R] is:
cos sin
sin cos
cos sin
sin cos
u u
u u
u u
u u
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0

(
(
(
(
=

(
(
(
(
c s
s c
c s
s c
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Similarly , force components are related by
{f} = [R]{f}
Local force displacement relation is
[k]{d} = {f}
global force displacement relation is
[k][R]{d} = [R]{f}
using fact that [R]
-1
= [R]
T
, we get
[R]
T
[k][R]{d} = {f}
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then [k] = stiffness matrix in global
coordinates is [R]
T
[k][R]
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
c cs c cs
cs s cs s
[k] k
c cs c cs
cs s cs s
(

(

(
=
(

(

(

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Structure equation is [k] {D} = {F}
[k] = structure stiffness matrix
{D} = nodal displacement vector
{F} = applied load vector

' '
i j i i i
i
i
i
i
j
j
DB{u u } note u' u cos( ) v sin( )
u
={c s}
v
u
v
c s 0 0
-1 1
E
u
0 0 c s L L
v
o = = u + u

`
)



(
o =
` `
(

)

)
{ }
i
i
j
j
u
v
E
c -s c s
u
L
v



=
`


)
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2
2
E l e m e n t
i - n o d e
C o o r d i n a t e
x
y
C o o r d i n a t e
x
y
L e n g t h
j - n o d e C
s
1
1
0 0
2
L c o s 4 5 L s i n 4 5 c o s 4 5
s i n 4 5
L
3 0
2 L s i n 4 5
2 L c o s 4 5
L s i n 4 5
L
c o s 4 5 -s i n 4 5
[ ' ] k k
c cs c cs
cs s cs s
c cs c cs
cs s cs s
=



(
(
(
(
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
( ) ( )
j i j i
2 2
j i j i
x x y y
C , m
L L
L x x y y

= =
= +
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u
3
o = o =
v
3
u
u
3
v
3
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Finite Element Model
usually use existing codes to solve
problems
user responsible for
creating the model
executing the program
interpreting the results
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arrangement of nodes and elements is
known as the mesh
plan to make the mesh model the structure
as accurately as possible
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for a truss
each member is modeled as 1 truss element
truss members or elements are connected at
nodes
node connections behave like pin joints
truss element behaves in exact agreement with
assumptions
no need to divide a member into more than 1
element
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such subdivision will cause execution to fail
due to zero stiffness against lateral force at the node
connection where 2 members are in axial alignment
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there is geometric symmetry
often possible to reduce the size of problem by
using symmetry
need loading symmetry as well
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Fig. 3-5 and 3-6 show symmetric loads and
the reduced model
need to impose extra conditions along the line
of symmetry
displacement constraints: nodes along the line of
symmetry must always move along that line
changed loads: the load at the line of symmetry is
split in two
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Computer input assistance
a preprocessor is used to assist user input
required inputs are
data to locate nodes in space
definition of elements by node numbers
type of analysis to be done
material properties
displacement conditions
applied loads
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interactive preprocessors are preferable
you can see each node as it is created
elements are displayed as they are created
symbols are given for displacement and load
conditions
usually allow mesh generation by replication or
interpolation of an existing mesh
allow inserting nodes along lines
allow entering a grid by minimum and
maximum positions plus a grid spacing
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truss element consists of 2 node numbers
that connect to form element
other information for truss is
modulus of elasticity
cross sectional area
data can form a material table
assign element data by reference to the
table
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boundary or displacement conditions are set
by selecting a node and setting its
displacement
do not over constrain a structure by
prescribing zero displacements where there
is no physical support
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loading conditions are set by selecting
nodes and specifying force or moment
components
check model carefully at this point
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Analysis Step
mostly transparent to user
small truss models have enough accuracy
and performance for an accurate solution
a large model has a large number of
elements and nodes
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numerical solution may not be accurate if
there are full matrices
get better accuracy if the nonzero terms are
close to the diagonal
reduces the number of operations and round off
error (banded matrix)
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in FE model, element or node numbering
can affect bandwidth
good numbering pattern can minimize
bandwidth
different methods based on node or element
numbering
to minimize, plan numbering pattern so nodes
that connect through an element have their
equations assembled close together
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In Fig. 3-7, node numbers are considered,
Xs show nonzero terms
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In Fig. 3-8, node numbers are considered
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many programs have bandwidth or
wavefront minimizers available
most programs will keep original
numbering for display but use the
minimized number scheme
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numerical algorithms, numerical range of
the computer affect solution
relative stiffness of members can influence
results
problems when members of high and low
stiffness connect
can exceed precision of computer
physical situation is usually undesirable
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Approximation error for truss is zero
Most common error messages (errors) come
from
incorrect definition of elements
incorrect application of displacement boundary
conditions
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may get non-positive definite structure stiffness
matrix from not enough boundary conditions to
prevent rigid body motion
two elements connect in-line zero lateral
stiffness
truss structure not kinematically stable (linkage)
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next look at stress components
in continua, stress components are related to
averaged quantities at the nodes
trusses have a stress in each member (not easy
to plot)
truss model is exact so it does not usually
need refinement
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Output Processing and Evaluation
Get numerical results with input data
followed by all nodal displacements and
element stresses
first graphic to look at is the deformed
shape of the structure
nodal displacements are exaggerated to show
structure deformation
check to ensure model behaves as expected
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linear elastic analysis, failure is by
overstressing
buckling (have to find members with
significant compression and use Euler's
buckling equation)
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Final Remarks
few situations where a truss element is the
right element for modeling behavior