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Artificial Neural Network

(ANN)

Definition & Area of Application


Neural Networks (NN): have remarkable ability to drive meaning from complicated or imprecise data. knowledge acquisition tools that learn from examples

Neural Networks are used for: pattern recognition (objects in images, voice, medical diagnostics for diseases, etc.). exploratory analysis (data mining). predictive models and control.

Neural Networks
Inspired by natural decision making structures
(real nervous systems and brains) If you connect lots of simple decision making pieces together, they can make more complex decisions
Compose simple functions to produce complex functions

Neural networks:
Take multiple numeric input variables Produce multiple numeric output values Normally threshold outputs to turn them into discrete values.
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What is an artificial neural network?


An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is an information processing paradigm that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems, such as the brain, process information. The key element of this paradigm is the novel structure of the information processing system. It is composed of a large number of highly interconnected processing elements (neurons) working in union to solve specific problems.
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Cont.

The term Neural network is in fact a biological term which is collection of neuron, the tiny cell are brain is comprised of . A network can consists of few to a few billion neurons connected in an array of different methods. ANNs attempt to model these biological structures both in architectures and operations

Advantage and Disadvantage


Advantages:
A neural network can perform tasks that a linear program can
not. When an element of the neural network fails, it can continue without any problem by their parallel nature. A neural network learns and does not need to be reprogrammed. It can be implemented without any problem. Disadvantages: The neural network needs training to operate. Requires high processing time for large neural networks.
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Neural Network Architectures


Feed-forward networks:Feed-forward ANNs allow signals to travel one way only; from input to output. There is no feedback (loops) i.e. the output of any layer does not affect that same layer. Feed-forward ANNs tend to be straight forward networks that associate inputs with outputs. They are extensively used in pattern recognition.

Cont.

Recurrent /Feedback networks:Feedback networks can have signals travelling in both directions by introducing loops in the network. Feedback networks are very powerful and can get extremely complicated. Feedback networks are dynamic; their 'state' is changing continuously until they reach an equilibrium point. They remain at the equilibrium point until the input changes and a new equilibrium needs to be found. Feedback architectures are also referred to as interactive or recurrent, although the latter term is often used to denote feedback connections in single-layer organizations.

Learning/Training of artificial neural networks


A neural network has to be configured such that the application of a set of inputs produces (either 'direct' or via a relaxation process) the desired set of outputs. Various methods to set the strengths of the connections exist. One way is to set the weights explicitly, using a priori knowledge. Another way is to 'train' the neural network by feeding it teaching patterns and letting it change its weights according to some learning rule.
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Cont.
We can categorize the learning situations in two distinct sorts. These are: Supervised learning or Associative learning in which the network is trained by providing it with input and matching output patterns. These input-output pairs can be provided by an external teacher, or by the system which contains the neural network (self-supervised).

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Cont.
Unsupervised learning or Self-organization in which an (output)
unit is trained to respond to clusters of pattern within the input. In this paradigm the system is supposed to discover statistically salient features of the input population.

Unlike the supervised learning paradigm, there is no a priori set of


categories into which the patterns are to be classified; rather the system must develop its own representation of the input stimuli.

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Cont.
Reinforcement Learning This type of learning may be considered
as an intermediate form of the above two types of learning. Here the learning machine does some action on the environment and gets a feedback response from the environment.

The learning system grades its action good (rewarding) or bad


(punishable) based on the environmental response and accordingly adjusts its parameters. Generally, parameter adjustment is continued until an equilibrium state occurs, following which there will be no more changes in its parameters. The self-organizing neural learning may be categorized under this type of learning.

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Application
Neural Network applicability to real world business
problem like sales forecasting, customer research, marketing, credit assignment evaluation etc Modeling and diagnosing the cardiovascular system Application in biomedical researches n medicine and instant physician Robotics Application Electronic Noses

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