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Diversification of Magmas

Evolution of Magmas
Why do we get so much variation in igneous rocks?

Evolution of Magmas

Types of Magmas: Primitive Primary Parent Derivative

Evolution of Magmas

Diferensiasi magmatik Setiap proses dimana magma adalah mampu melakukan diversifikasi dan menghasilkan magma atau batuan dengan komposisi berbeda

Evolution of Magmas

Ways to produce variation:


different source rocks partial melt fractionation

Evolution of Magmas
Partial melt fractionation:
Melting begins at cotectic more melting means greater divergence from cotectic melt.

The Ab-Or-Qtz system with the ternary cotectic curves and eutectic minima from 0.1 to 3 GPa. Included is the locus of most granite compositions from Figure 11-2 (shaded) and the plotted positions of the norms from the analyses in Table 18-2. Note the effects of increasing pressure and the An, B, and F contents on the position of the thermal minima. From Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.

Evolution of Magmas

Ways to produce variation:


different source rocks partial melt fractionation fractional crystallization

Evolusi Magmas Reaksi Bowen series:

Evolution of Magmas

Types of FX: gravity settling filter pressing convective fractionation congelation crystallization flow differentiation

Evolution of Magmas

Ways to produce variation:


different source rocks partial melt fractionation fractional crystallization assimilation diffusion/volatile transfer magma mixing post-solidification alteration

Origin of Magmas

MORBs Subduction Continental

Evolution of magmas
Processes responsible for changing a magmas composition
Magmatic differentiation
Separation of a melt from earlier formed crystals to form a different composition of magma

Assimilation
Changing a magmas composition by the incorporation of foreign matter (surrounding rock bodies) into a magma

Assimilation and magmatic differentiation

Which process is likely to change a magmas chemical composition to a chemistry more similar to the host rock?
A. B. C. D. Assimilation Differentiation Crystallization None of above

Evolution of magmas
Processes responsible for changing a magmas composition
Magma mixing
Involves two bodies of magma intruding one another Two chemically distinct magmas may produce a composition quite different from either original magma

Evolution of magmas
Partial melting and magma formation
Incomplete melting of rocks is known as partial melting Formation of basaltic magmas
Most originate from partial melting of ultramafic rock in the mantle Basaltic magmas form at mid-ocean ridges by decompression melting or at subduction zones

Geologic Environments Where Igneous Rocks Form Igneous Rocks Formed in Rift

Igneous Rocks Formed Above Sinking Plate

Origin of Magmas
Composition of the Mantle: ocean crust 6-8km, continental crust 30+ km mantle: base of crust to 2900km crust+mantle to 70km: lithosphere 70 145km: asthenosphere

Origin of Magmas

Composition of the Mantle:


peridotite: olivine + pyroxene eclogite: pyroxene + garnet

Low pressures (~30km): olivine, Al-poor pyroxene, plagioclase Moderate pressures (30-70km: olivine, Al-rich pyroxene, spinel (MgAl2O4) High pressures (>70km): olivine, Al-poor pyroxene, garnet

Origin of Magmas

Lherzolite: A type of peridotite with Olivine > Opx + Cpx


Olivine
Dunite
90

Peridotites Lherzolite
40

Orthopyroxenite

Olivine Websterite
10

Pyroxenites

10

Orthopyroxene

Websterite Clinopyroxenite

Clinopyroxene

After IUGS

Origin of Magmas Can the mantle melt under normal heat flow?

Answer:

NO!

Origin of Magmas How does the mantle melt??


1) Increase the temperature

May work for Hot Spots, Unlikely elsewhere

Solidus Solidus Liquidus

Melting by raising the temperature.

2) Lower the pressure

Origin of Magmas How does the mantle melt??

Adiabatic rise of mantle with no conductive heat loss Decompression melting could melt at least 30%

Probably what happens at spreading centers

Melting by (adiabatic) pressure reduction. Melting begins when the adiabat crosses the solidus and traverses the shaded melting interval. Dashed lines represent approximate % melting.

Origin of Magmas How does the mantle melt??


3) Add volatiles
(especially H2O)

Probably what happens at subduction zones

Dry peridotite solidus compared to several experiments on H2O-saturated peridotites.

Origin of Magmas MORBs:

Origin of Magmas MORBs:


Primitive melt is olivine tholeiite; dunites, pyroxenites, anorthosites and alkaline basalts are differentiates

Origin of Magmas Oceanic Crust and Upper Mantle Structure


Typical Ophiolite

Lithology and thickness of a typical ophiolite sequence, based on the Samial Ophiolite in Oman. After Boudier and Nicolas (1985) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 76, 84-92.

Origin of Magmas Oceanic Crust and Upper Mantle Structure

Layer 1
A thin layer of pelagic sediment

Modified after Brown and Mussett (1993) The Inaccessible Earth: An Integrated View of Its Structure and Composition. Chapman & Hall. London.

Origin of Magmas
Oceanic Crust and Upper Mantle Structure
Layer 2 is basaltic

Subdivided into two sub-layers Layer 2A & B = pillow basalts


Layer 2C = vertical sheeted dikes
Modified after Brown and Mussett (1993) The Inaccessible Earth: An Integrated View of Its Structure and Composition. Chapman & Hall. London.

Origin of Magmas

Layer 4 = ultramafic rocks


Ophiolites: base of 3B grades into layered cumulate wehrlite & gabbro Wehrlite intruded into layered gabbros Below cumulate dunite with harzburgite xenoliths Below this is a tectonite harzburgite and dunite (unmelted residuum of the original mantle)

A more modern concept of the axial magma chamber beneath a fast-spreading ridge

After Perfit et al. (1994) Geology, 22, 375-379.

Origin of Magmas Any model for the origin of magmas at subduction zones must account for:
1.

First stages of volcanism tholeiitic, then changes to calcalkaline

Origin of Magmas Any model for the origin of magmas at subduction zones must account for: 2. Trend from tholeiitic volcanism nearest trench to calcalkaline towards continent
tholeiitic calcalkaline

Origin of Magmas A model for the origin of magmas at subduction zones.


Early Phases
1. Basalt metamorphoses to amphibolite; dunite alters to serpentinite

2. Amphibolites dehydrate, H2O triggers melting of overlying mantle producing tholeiitic magmas; dehydrated slab becomes eclogite
Ringwod (1974)

Origin of Magmas A model for the origin of magmas at subduction zones.


Later Phases
1. Dehydration of serpentinite bodies; H2O causes partial melting of eclogite to form rhyodacite-dacite magma

2. Magma reacts with overlying mantle forms less dense garnet pyroxenite; diapiric rise initiates partial melting; fractionation produces calcalkaline magmas
Ringwod (1974)

Origin of Magmas

Continental Magmas: alkaline rocks carbonatites kimberlites anorthosites gabbroic layered intrusions anorogenic granites

Continental Alkaline Magmatism: Carbonatites

Origin of Magmas

Schematic cross section of an asthenospheric mantle plume beneath a continental rift environment, and the genesis of nephelinite-carbonatites and kimberlite-carbonatites . Numbers correspond to Figure 19-13. After Wyllie (1989, Origin of carbonatites: Evidence from phase equilibrium studies. In K. Bell (ed.), Carbonatites: Genesis and Evolution. Unwin Hyman, London. pp. 500-545) and Wyllie et al., (1990, Lithos, 26, 3-19). Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.

Origin of Magmas Continental Alkaline Magmatism: Kimberlites

Model of an idealized kimberlite system, illustrating the hypabyssal dike-sill complex leading to a diatreme and tuff ring explosive crater. This model is not to scale, as the diatreme portion is expanded to illustrate it better. From Mitchell (1986) Kimberlites: Mineralogy, Geochemistry, and Petrology. Plenum. New York. Winter (2001) An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. Prentice Hall.

Origin of Magmas
A model for the origin of anorthosites

a. Mantle-derived magma underplates the crust as it becomes density equilibrated.

Origin of Magmas
A model for the origin of anorthosites

b. Crystallization of mafic phases (which sink), and partial melting of the crust above the ponded magma. The melt becomes enriched in Al and Fe/Mg.

Origin of Magmas
A model for the origin of anorthosites

c. Plagioclase forms when the melt is sufficiently enriched. Plagioclase rises to the top of the chamber whereas mafics sink.

Origin of Magmas
A model for the origin of anorthosites

d. Plagioclase accumulations become less dense than the crust above and rise as crystal mush plutons.

Origin of Magmas

e. Plagioclase plutons coalesce to form massif anorthosite, whereas granitoid crustal melts rise to shallow levels as well. Mafic cumulates remain at depth or detach and sink into the mantle.

Textural Interpretations from Phase Diagrams


Binary Systems with Congruent Melting

Textural Interpretations from Phase Diagrams


Binary Systems with Congruent Melting

Diabase dike

Plagioclase forms before augite Diabasic tecture

This forms on the right side of the eutectic

Textural Interpretations from Phase Diagrams


Binary Systems with Congruent Melting

Left of the eutectic get a similar situation

Textural Interpretations from Phase Diagrams


Binary Systems with Congruent Melting

Gabbro of the Stillwater Complex, Montana

Augite forms before plagioclase Ophitic tecture

This forms on the left side of the eutectic

Textural Interpretations from Phase Diagrams


Binary Systems with Incongruent Melting

Olivine cores with pyroxene reaction rims

Textural Interpretations from Phase Diagrams


Binary Systems with Solid Solution

Textural Interpretations from Phase Diagrams

Zoned plagioclase

Na Ca