+
Controller Actuator plant
Sensor
actuating error signal e(t)
output c(t)
feed back signal b(t)
controller output u(t)
reference
Input r(t)
CONTROL ACTIONS
What is control action?
The manner in which the automatic controller produces
the control signal is called the control action.
Basic Operations of a Feedback Control
Think of what goes on in domestic hot water thermostat:
The temperature of the water is measured.
Comparison of the measured and the required values
provides an error, e.g. too hot or too cold.
On the basis of error, a control algorithm decides what to do.
Such an algorithm might be:
If the temperature is too high then turn the heater off.
If it is too low then turn the heater on
The adjustment chosen by the control algorithm is applied to
some adjustable variable, such as the power input to the
water heater.
Feedback Control Properties
A feedback control system seeks to bring the
measured quantity to its required value or setpoint.
Why set point is not equal to measured value
The system has been disturbed.
The set point has changed. In the absence of
external disturbance, a change in set point will
introduce an error. The control system will act
until the measured quantity reach its new set
point.
Two position or onoff controllers
Proportional controllers
Integral controllers
Proportionalplus Integral controllers (PI)
ProportionalplusDerivative controllers (PD)
ProportionalplusIntegralplusDerivative controllers (PID)
Classification of Controllers based on
control action
Controller Output
The variable being controlled is the output of the
controller (and the input of the plant):
The output of the controller will change in response to
a change in measurement or setpoint (that said a
change in the tracking error)
provides excitation to the plant system to be controlled
PID Controller
In the sdomain, the PID controller may be represented as:
In the time domain:
dt
t de
K dt t e K t e K t u
d
t
i p
) (
) ( ) ( ) (
0
+ + =
}
) ( ) ( s E s K
s
K
K s U
d
i
p

.

\

+ + =
proportional gain integral gain derivative gain
In the time domain:


.

\

+ + =
+ + =
}
}
dt
t de
T dt t e
T
t e K
dt
t de
K dt t e K t e K t u
d
t
i
p
d
t
i p
) (
) (
1
) (
) (
) ( ) ( ) (
0
0
i
d
d
i
p
i
K
K
T
K
K
T where = = ,
proportional gain integral gain
derivative gain
derivative time constant integral time constant
Proportional Control Action
The proportional controller is essentially
an amplifier with an adjustable gain.
e(t) K u(t)
p
=
p
K
E(s)
U(s)
=
+
K
p
actuating error
signal e(t)
feed back signal b(t)
controller
output u(t)
reference
Input r(t)
t
u(t)
K
p
e(t)
e(t)
0
In proportional controller there is
a steady state error or offset
K
p
is proportional gain
Integral Control Action /
Reset control action
+
actuating error
signal e(t)
feed back signal b(t)
controller
output u(t)
reference
Input r(t)
s
K
i
for zero e(t),
u(t) remains stationary
u(t)
t 0
}
e(t)dt
e(t)=1
e(t) K
dt
du(t)
i
=
s
K
E(s)
U(s)
i
=
K
i
is adjustable constant
Derivative Control Action
Properties:
It responds to the rate of change of the actuating error.
It anticipates the actuating error, initiates an early corrective
action.
It tends to increase the stability of the system.
It adds damping to the system, permitting the use of large
gain, which results in improvement of steady state error.
It does not affect the steady state error directly.
It is always used in combination with proportional controller.
Set point kick is a problem with derivative
controller. This occurs when the set point to a
control loop is suddenly changed to a new
value (like a step change). Since the feedback
signal cannot change instantaneously, such a
step is passed directly to the error signal. A
derivative controller (the output of which is the
derivative of the error signalwhich is very high
now) will produce an impulsive type response
and it may damage the plant.
Set point kick
Ziegler Nichols tuning
Ziegler Nichols tuning