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AP Psychology – Mr.

Duez – Chapter 10 – Emotion & Motivation

Notes: Part I Also use CH 10 article – “Why We Eat” And Videos on “Photoshop Effect.”

Hunger is physiological, social & psychological.

If you learn only 5 things from this chapter for the AP Test...
1. Human motivation is complex, and while there are a number of theories, none by itself sufficiently explains our behavior. 2. Biological motivation includes the role of the hypothalamus, which maintains a state called homeostasis. 3. Theories of social motivation, including the need for achievement and the hierarchy of needs, show the importance of understanding motivation in the context of our environments. 4. Emotions can be explained through a variety of theoretical perspectives, each arguing that emotion emerges in conjunction with physiological response to stimuli.

In the 60’s it was discovered that hunger comes from… The Brain

The Hypothalamus

Washburn’s studies showed hunger was partially related to the stomach. But those with their stomachs removed still feel hunger.

Physiology of Hunger

BIOLOGICAL MOTIVATION. The hypothalamus is the region of the brain most often associated with motivation. It plays an important role in the motivation for feeding, fighting, fleeing, and sexual reproduction.

Glucose The hormone insulin converts glucose to fat. When glucose levels drophunger increases.

If we lesion the lateral hypothalamus in a rat, the rat will lose its appetite. The rat will experience a form of anorexia in which it will not be hungry and, therefore, will not eat.

Evidence of the lateral hypothalamus provides motivation for hunger or feeding.
If we lesion the ventromedial hypothalamus, the rat will not feel full and will continue to eat well beyond what is normally expected.

Evidence of the ventromedial hypothalamus as the motivation in the biological structure of the brain for this type of behavior (not eating). Ventromedial Hypothalamus = Satiety Center (the part of the brain that tells you that you're full):

Summary of The Hypothalamus and Hunger
Along the lower middle section of the hypothalamus is the ventromedial hypothalamus: which depresses hunger. Stimulate the ventromedial hypothalamus and the animal will stop eating Lesion the ventromedial hypothalamus the animal will continuously want to eat. Along the sides of the hypothalamus is the lateral hypothalamus: which brings on hunger. Stimulate the lateral hypothalamus and even a well fed animal will begin to eat. Lesion the lateral hypothalamus and a starving animal will have no interest in food.

“Start center” for hunger

“Stop center” for hunger

Is there more to this than a simple start and stop center? Probably.
Contemporary theories on hunger focus on neural circuits within the hypothalamus.

How does the hypothalamus work?
2 Theories Leptin Set Point Leptin is a protein produced by Hypothalamus acts like a bloated fat cells. thermostat. Hypothalamus senses rises in We are meant to be in a certain leptin and will curb eating and weight range. increase activity. When we fall below weight our Can leptin injections help me? body will increase hunger and decrease energy expenditure
(Basal Metabolic Rate). What happens if we go above our set point?

One of the most important concepts in biological motivation is that of homeostasis, the tendency of all organisms to maintain a balanced state. When we are too cold, the hypothalamus releases hormones that cause us to shiver and seek out warmth or put on clothing. When we have not had enough sleep, we are likewise pushed to slow down as we yawn and struggle to keep our eyes open. Homeostasis helps us to return to this balance when we deviate from our normal state.

This dish is made from Mopani worms, which look like caterpillars in appearance. Their habitat is in the Lowveld areas of the Mpumalanga and Limpopo provinces, where they live in and around there food source, the mopani trees. Somewhat stringy, this exotic South African food is usually fried, grilled or cooked, spiced with chilli and often eaten with peanuts. Virgin eggs (童子蛋) are chicken eggs cooked in the urine of young boys. Apparently the bizarre delicacy has a pretty long history in Dongyang City. But it's making headlines recently as it was discovered by some folks that the street food has been officially listed as one of the city's cultural heritage.

The Biological Factors of Hunger
1. Activity of the lateral & medial hypothalamus. (see previous slides) 2. Basal Metabolic Rate: Each person burns food at a different rate and expends energy with different efficiency. A person with a high metabolic rate can eat more without gaining weight than someone who is just as active, but has a lower metabolic rate. 3. Body Set Point: Just as we have a temperature “thermostat” that keeps our body temp within an acceptable range, one theory suggests that we have a weight “set point.” Newer research suggests we have a “settling point” – a range of normal weights within which we can vary.

4. Taste sensation: Tastes is an important factor when we first begin eating. It encourages us to continue.

Taste Preferences
Food taste better and we chew less when we are hungry (beginning of a meal).
Food tastes worse and we chew more when we are not hungry (at the end of the meal).

Its strange, the better the food tastes, the less time we leave it in our mouths!

Hunger and eating are governed in part by a variety of food-related cues. In this study, Schachter found that obese subjects would eat more than non-obese subjects when they were told it was much later in the afternoon than it actually was. And also would eat more of a tasty ice cream product than one that was not as tasty.

Advertisements – do they impact your eating habits?

Social Eating Celebration Eating Cultural Eating

Do Now Question: Suppose you are a university counselor who wants to develop a program to improve students' academic performance. You believe that many students perform poorly because of motivational problems, including simple lack of motivation as well as being motivated by the wrong things. What are some of the considerations that should guide the design of your program?

Much of what theory and research have to say about motivation is relevant in designing such a program. • Remember that motivation can be influenced by incentives. Expectancy-value models can be useful here. • It's important to know that some motives are biological, some social. One's level of motivation to perform well in school depends on social experiences and can thus be manipulated through social experience.

Do Now Question: Suppose you are a university counselor who wants to develop a program to improve students' academic performance. You believe that many students perform poorly because of motivational problems, including simple lack of motivation as well as being motivated by the wrong things. What are some of the considerations that should guide the design of your program?

• Maslow's theory implies that motivation to perform well academically must wait upon the satisfaction of lower-level motives. • It may be possible to link motivation to perform well in school with other motives that are already stronger, such as the need for affiliation. Success along these lines will require understanding the nature of individual differences in levels of these other motives. • People with different levels of achievement motivation respond differently depending upon levels of challenge. • Fear of failure also influences efforts toward achievement.

DO NOW QUESTION: Compare and contrast sexual motivation with the basic motives of hunger and thirst. How well do the concepts of drive and homeostasis contribute to understanding sexual motivation?

• All are biologically based, though hunger and thirst are necessary for individual survival and sex is not (though some individuals might argue this point). • All 3 seem to conform to the definition of "drive." • But sexual motivation is not driven by deprivation as much as the other two, so that its satisfaction is not as easily explained in terms of homeostasis or maintaining equilibrium. • Sexual motivation in humans appears to be more under the influence of incentives than are hunger and thirst. All are influenced by a complex network of biological and social factors.