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X-ray and US testing of welds

in Ship Repair

Testing of welds is an integral and the
most important constituent of the ship
repair Quality Assurance (QA).
Evaluation of Welds are to be placed in
Prediction of Damage and Residual Life.
Accordance with the welding Codes and
Standards to ensure safety, reliability and
Quality characteristics
Cracks, Inclusions, Porosities, Lack of
Penetration, Lack of fusion, Lack of bond,
Undercut, Alloy identification, Composition
Evaluation of welds for most stringent
service conditions
Choice of techniques or complementary
techniques to be selected
Cost effectiveness
Ship Repair


Ultrasonic test Visual Inspection

Radiographic test Leak Testing

Magnetic Most important work is

Ultrasonic Thickness
Liquid penetration gauging
Test Reports are provided by NDT
department and approved by a third
party inspector.

Acceptance standard used:


In India: BIS (Bureau of Indian

X – Ray Radiographic Test
The X-ray radiographic testing method is
especially superior as regards testing data and
the ease of the testing method. However, when
the defect is small, it is difficult to identify the
existence of defects, defect type, defect shape,
etc. using an X-ray film. On the other hand, it is
difficult to employ skilled laborers and moreover,
efficiency of identifying operation of X-ray film
becomes important
Radiographic testing
can detect internal
defects in ferrous and
nonferrous metal.

This type of testing is

useful for thin sections
and suitable to any
type of material.

All discontinuities are

detected by viewing
the weld shape and
variation in the density
of the processed film.
Ultrasonic Testing

Ultrasonic Testing can detect

discontinuities oriented both in the plane
of and normal to the surface of welded
components. Unfavorable geometries and
coarse anisotropic grain structures pose
difficulties in successful exploitation of this
Can inspect as thick as 5 m.

Carried out at frequencies

between 1 to 25 MHz.
Defects detected are: cracks,
shrinkage cavities, lack of
fusion. Pores and bonding

The detection, location, and

evaluation of discontinuities
become possible because the
velocity of sound through a
material is nearly constant,
making distance measurement
Method Radiography Ultrasonic
1. Linear weld geometry
Y** Y**
2. Non-linear weld
N? Y**
3. Surface defects
Y** Y*
4. Volume defects
Y** Y**
5. Planner defects
Y? Y**
6. Length measurement
Y** Y*
7. Measurement of Small
N Y*
8. Through wall size
N? Y**
Major Advantages of X-ray testing
Information is presented pictorially.
A permanent record is provided, which can be
viewed at a time and place distant from the test.
Sensitivity is declared on each film.
Radiographic testing (RT) usually is suitable for
testing welded joints that can be accessed from
both sides
Although this is a slow and expensive NDT
method, it is a dependable way to detect
porosity, inclusions, cracks, and voids in weld
Major Disadvantages of X-ray testing
Inappropriate for surface defects and for
automation, unless the system incorporates
fluoroscopy with an image intensifier or other
electronic aids.
Can't cope with thick sections, and the testing
itself can pose a possible health hazard.
X-ray testing does not indicate the depth of a
defect below the surface.
Only qualified personnel should conduct this test
because false readings can be expensive and
can interfere seriously with productivity, and
because invisible X-ray and gamma radiation
can be hazardous.
Major Advantages of US testing
Ultrasonic flaw detection can be used to test
thickness of 5 m and length up to 9 m.
This type of testing can determine defect
position, size, and type.
It's a portable type of testing that offers extreme
sensitivity when required and can be fully
Access to only one side is necessary for testing,
and no consumables are used.
can detect discontinuities oriented both in the
plane of and normal to the surface of welded
Major Disadvantages of US testing

No permanent record is available unless

one of the more sophisticated test results
and data collection systems is used.
A considerable degree of skill is necessary
to get the most information from the test.
very thin sections can be difficult to test
with this method.
Test indications require interpretation,
except for digital wall thickness gauges.
Repair cargo damage to double bottom tank
top in cargo hold.

• Cut out and remove damaged plate and

internal longitudinal and transverse stiffeners
• Prepare new stiffener plates, tank top plate
insert, and prepare all surfaces for welding
• Fit new structural members and accomplished
production welding
• Ultrasonic test (shear wave inspection) of
repair weld (angle beam 100% weld)
After Repair of Ship .…..
Depending on which Classification Society the
vessel is classed; the regulations of that
particular class are discussed. Actually there
are two surveys that are carried out

 Close up inspection by Class Surveyor,

 Thickness measurement survey by an
approved company.

The most important factors that decide the

extent of both surveys are the age and the
general condition of the vessel.
Standards for Radiographic Testing of weld
by different Standard making organizations
Organizatio Standard No. Title
ASTM E390 Reference radiographs for steel fusion
ASME Sec III (1) Radiographic and ultrasonic examination
NB2560, of boilers fabricated by welding.
Acceptance standards for radiography of
boilers fabricated by welding.
Examination and repair of tubular
products and filters with filler meta, and
acceptance standards for welds
Sec VIII(1) Radiographic examination of pressure
UW 11, UW vessels.
BSI BS499 Terminology of and abbreviation for fusion weld imperfections as
Part 3 revealed by radiography.
BS 2600 Methods of Radiographic examination of fusion welded butt joints
in steel.

BS 2910 Methods\s for radiographic examination of fusion welded

circumferential butt joints in steel pipes.

BIS IS 1182 Recommended practice for radiographic examination of fusion

welded butt joints in steel plates.

IS 2953 Glossary of terms used for interpretation of welds and casting


IS 4853 Recommended practice for radiographic inspection of fusion

welded butt joints in steel plates.

IS 7810 Code of practice for radiographic examination of resistance spot

e\welds of aluminium s alloys

ISO ISO/R 947,106 Recommended practice for radiographic inspection of fusion

2407 welded butt joints in steel pipes (up to 50 mm thick) and plates
(up to 50 mm in R 947 and 50-200 mm in R 106)

ISO 2437 Recommended practice for X-ray inspection of butt joints for
aluminium and its alloys and magnesium and its alloys from 5
to 50 mm thick

DIN DIN 54/11 Testing of welds of metallic materials by X ray of Gamma rays.
Part I/II-73
Standards for Ultrasonic Testing of weld
by different Standard making organizations
Organization Standard No. Title

ASTM E164 Recommended practice for ultrasonic contact

examination of weldments.
E273 Ultrasonic inspection of longitudinal and spiral
welds of welded pipes and tubing.
ASME Sec. I RT and UT examination and acceptance
PW II standards for boilers fabricated by welding.

Sec. III (1) Examination and repair of tubular products and

NB 2560, 5330 fittings welded with filler metal with
ultrasonic acceptance standards for welds.
Sec VIII (1) Radiographic and Ultrasonic examination of
UW 11, 53 pressure vessels fabricated by welding,
techniques of testing.
Sec VIII (1) Appendix U for non mandatory appendix and
Appendix U Appendix 9 for mandatory ultrasonic
Appendix 9 examination of welds
BSI BS 3923 Methods for ultrasonic examination of
Part I Manual examination of fusion welded
butt joints in ferritic steels
Part II Automatic examination of fusion welded
butt joints in ferritic steels.
Part III Manual examination of nozzle.

BIS IS 4260 Recommended practice for ultrasonic

testing of ferrous welded pipes and
tubular products.
IS 7343 Code of practice for ultrasonic testing of
ferrous welded pipes and tubular
ISO ISO 2400 Reference blocks for the calibration of
equipments for ultrasonic testing of
welds in steel.
Welding Engineering Handbok, VOL I,
Radiant publication By Dr. Baldev Raj and
C.V. Subramanian
Non-Destructive tests of welds By Dr.
Baldev Raj and T. Jayakumar
A review of common NDT, assessment, its
tools, advantages and disadvantages By
Mark Willcox and George Downes