X-ray and US testing of welds in Ship Repair

SHANTANU NEEMA S. BINO JACOB

WHY TESTING OF WELDS ?
Testing of welds is an integral and the most important constituent of the ship repair Quality Assurance (QA). Evaluation of Welds are to be placed in service. Prediction of Damage and Residual Life. Accordance with the welding Codes and Standards to ensure safety, reliability and Economy.

Quality characteristics
Cracks, Inclusions, Porosities, Lack of Penetration, Lack of fusion, Lack of bond, Undercut, Alloy identification, Composition Evaluation of welds for most stringent service conditions Choice of techniques or complementary techniques to be selected Cost effectiveness

Ship Repair
NDT
Ultrasonic test
Radiographic test

QC
Visual Inspection

Leak Testing

Magnetic
Liquid penetration

Most important work is Ultrasonic Thickness gauging

Test Reports are provided by NDT department and approved by a third party inspector. Acceptance standard used: ASTM, BSI, ISO, DIN In India: BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards)

X – Ray Radiographic Test
The X-ray radiographic testing method is especially superior as regards testing data and the ease of the testing method. However, when the defect is small, it is difficult to identify the existence of defects, defect type, defect shape, etc. using an X-ray film. On the other hand, it is difficult to employ skilled laborers and moreover, efficiency of identifying operation of X-ray film becomes important

Radiographic testing can detect internal defects in ferrous and nonferrous metal. This type of testing is useful for thin sections and suitable to any type of material. All discontinuities are detected by viewing the weld shape and variation in the density of the processed film.

Ultrasonic Testing
Ultrasonic Testing can detect discontinuities oriented both in the plane of and normal to the surface of welded components. Unfavorable geometries and coarse anisotropic grain structures pose difficulties in successful exploitation of this technique.

Can inspect as thick as 5 m. Carried out at frequencies between 1 to 25 MHz. Defects detected are: cracks, shrinkage cavities, lack of fusion. Pores and bonding faults. The detection, location, and evaluation of discontinuities become possible because the velocity of sound through a material is nearly constant, making distance measurement possible.

Method
1. Linear weld geometry 2. Non-linear weld geometry 3. Surface defects 4. Volume defects (Internal) 5. Planner defects (Internal) 6. Length measurement 7. Measurement of Small Ligament 8. Through wall size measurement

Radiography (X-ray/Gamma-ray)

Ultrasonic Y** Y** Y* Y** Y** Y* Y* Y**

Y** N? Y** Y** Y? Y** N N?

Major Advantages of X-ray testing
Information is presented pictorially. A permanent record is provided, which can be viewed at a time and place distant from the test. Sensitivity is declared on each film. Radiographic testing (RT) usually is suitable for testing welded joints that can be accessed from both sides Although this is a slow and expensive NDT method, it is a dependable way to detect porosity, inclusions, cracks, and voids in weld interiors.

Major Disadvantages of X-ray testing
Inappropriate for surface defects and for automation, unless the system incorporates fluoroscopy with an image intensifier or other electronic aids. Can't cope with thick sections, and the testing itself can pose a possible health hazard. X-ray testing does not indicate the depth of a defect below the surface. Only qualified personnel should conduct this test because false readings can be expensive and can interfere seriously with productivity, and because invisible X-ray and gamma radiation can be hazardous.

Major Advantages of US testing
Ultrasonic flaw detection can be used to test thickness of 5 m and length up to 9 m. This type of testing can determine defect position, size, and type. It's a portable type of testing that offers extreme sensitivity when required and can be fully automated. Access to only one side is necessary for testing, and no consumables are used. can detect discontinuities oriented both in the plane of and normal to the surface of welded components.

Major Disadvantages of US testing
No permanent record is available unless one of the more sophisticated test results and data collection systems is used. A considerable degree of skill is necessary to get the most information from the test. very thin sections can be difficult to test with this method. Test indications require interpretation, except for digital wall thickness gauges.

EXAMPLE
Repair cargo damage to double bottom tank top in cargo hold. • Cut out and remove damaged plate and internal longitudinal and transverse stiffeners • Prepare new stiffener plates, tank top plate insert, and prepare all surfaces for welding • Fit new structural members and accomplished production welding • Ultrasonic test (shear wave inspection) of repair weld (angle beam 100% weld)

After Repair of Ship .…..
Depending on which Classification Society the vessel is classed; the regulations of that particular class are discussed. Actually there are two surveys that are carried out simultaneously:  Close up inspection by Class Surveyor,  Thickness measurement survey by an approved company. The most important factors that decide the extent of both surveys are the age and the general condition of the vessel.

Standards for Radiographic Testing of weld by different Standard making organizations
Organizatio n ASTM ASME Standard No. E390 Sec III (1) NB2560, NB5320 Title Reference radiographs for steel fusion welds Radiographic and ultrasonic examination of boilers fabricated by welding. Acceptance standards for radiography of boilers fabricated by welding. Examination and repair of tubular products and filters with filler meta, and acceptance standards for welds Sec VIII(1) UW 11, UW 51,52 Radiographic examination of pressure vessels.

BSI

BS499 Part 3 BS 2600 BS 2910

Terminology of and abbreviation for fusion weld imperfections as revealed by radiography. Methods of Radiographic examination of fusion welded butt joints in steel. Methods\s for radiographic examination of fusion welded circumferential butt joints in steel pipes. Recommended practice for radiographic examination of fusion welded butt joints in steel plates. Glossary of terms used for interpretation of welds and casting radiographs. Recommended practice for radiographic inspection of fusion welded butt joints in steel plates. Code of practice for radiographic examination of resistance spot e\welds of aluminium s alloys Recommended practice for radiographic inspection of fusion welded butt joints in steel pipes (up to 50 mm thick) and plates (up to 50 mm in R 947 and 50-200 mm in R 106) Recommended practice for X-ray inspection of butt joints for aluminium and its alloys and magnesium and its alloys from 5 to 50 mm thick Testing of welds of metallic materials by X ray of Gamma rays.

BIS

IS 1182

IS 2953 IS 4853

IS 7810 ISO ISO/R 947,106 2407

ISO 2437

DIN

DIN 54/11 Part I/II-73

Standards for Ultrasonic Testing of weld by different Standard making organizations
Organization ASTM Standard No. E164 E273 ASME Sec. I PW II Sec. III (1) NB 2560, 5330 Sec VIII (1) UW 11, 53 Sec VIII (1) Appendix U Appendix 9 Title Recommended practice for ultrasonic contact examination of weldments. Ultrasonic inspection of longitudinal and spiral welds of welded pipes and tubing. RT and UT examination and acceptance standards for boilers fabricated by welding. Examination and repair of tubular products and fittings welded with filler metal with ultrasonic acceptance standards for welds. Radiographic and Ultrasonic examination of pressure vessels fabricated by welding, techniques of testing. Appendix U for non mandatory appendix and Appendix 9 for mandatory ultrasonic examination of welds

BSI

BS 3923 Part I Part II Part III

Methods for ultrasonic examination of welds. Manual examination of fusion welded butt joints in ferritic steels Automatic examination of fusion welded butt joints in ferritic steels. Manual examination of nozzle. Recommended practice for ultrasonic testing of ferrous welded pipes and tubular products. Code of practice for ultrasonic testing of ferrous welded pipes and tubular products. Reference blocks for the calibration of equipments for ultrasonic testing of welds in steel.

BIS

IS 4260

IS 7343

ISO

ISO 2400

REFERENCES:
Welding Engineering Handbok, VOL I, Radiant publication By Dr. Baldev Raj and C.V. Subramanian Non-Destructive tests of welds By Dr. Baldev Raj and T. Jayakumar

www.ndt.net/articles http://www.thefabricator.com
A review of common NDT, assessment, its tools, advantages and disadvantages By Mark Willcox and George Downes

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