9th International Conference on Precision Agriculture

July 20-23, 2008 — Denver, Colorado

So Where Is Precision Ag?
…a brief history, current expression and future directions

Joseph K. Berry
W. M. Keck Visiting Scholar in Geosciences, Geography, University of Denver Principal, Berry & Associates // Spatial Information Systems Email jberry@innovativegis.com — Web www.innovativegis.com/basis/

What Is Precision Agriculture?
Things to keep in mind—
PA is about doing the right thing at the right place and at the right time …it identifies and responds to the variability within a field …it augments indigenous knowledge
(not a replacement)

(PA has been around awhile, Circa 1992)

…it is a radically different technology with extremely high expectations
(Berry)

Historical Setting and Evolution Computer Mapping automates the cartographic process (70s) links GIS 8. Dept. RS) as one of three "mega technologies" for the 21st century and promises to change how we conceptualize.000 years of mapping Spatial Database Management computer mapping techniques with traditional database capabilities (80s) …CM + SDBM of the first two decades is often referred to as Desktop Mapping and Inventory — What is Where Map Analysis — Why and So What Map Analysis representation of …focus of this presentation relationships within and among mapped data (90s) Toolbox supporting Precision Ag Multimedia Mapping full integration of GIS. GPS. GIS.S. utilize and visualize spatial relationships in scientific research and commercial applications (the other two are Biotechnology and Nanotechnology) (Berry) . Internet and visualization technologies (00s) Note: U. of Labor identifies Geotechnology (GPS. RS.

increased profitability and/or improved stewardship (Berry) .Yield Limiting Factors (the basis of PA)  Water  Weather  Topography  Nutrients  Weeds  Pests  Genetics  Seeding Rate  Other… On-Farm Studies (Research?) Candidate for Precision Agriculture and Site-specific Management if and only if —  the factor is a significant driving variable  it has measurable spatial variability  its variability can be explained and spatial relationships established  it exhibits a spatial response to practical management actions …and results in production gains.

Whole Field vs. Site Specific Management Whole-field assumes the ―average‖ conditions are the same everywhere within the field (uniform/homogenous) Management action is the same throughout the field Z2 Discrete Management Zones break the field into areas of similar conditions (zones) The bulk of agricultural research has been ―non-spatial‖ …but PA is all about spatial relationships/patterns Research Opportunity Z1 Z3 Z2 Z1 Management action is the same within each zone Is Smart Sampling really dumb? Continuous Surfaces break the field into small consistent pieces (cells) that track specific conditions at each location Management action varies throughout the field (Berry) .

--. --. --. 149. --.MAP Analysis Framework (Keystone Concept) Click on… Shading Manager Zoom Pan Rotate Display Analysis Frame (Grid ) …each map layer is organized as a geo-registered matrix of numbers Map Stack Grid Table Continuous regular grid cells (objects) : --. : (Berry) . --. --. --. --. --. --. --. --.0. --. --. --. --. --.

clustering)  Predictive— relationships among maps (e.. regression)  Prescription— appropriate actions (e. shape. optimal paths.g. aspect. region-wide. size.Surface Modeling Techniques Grid-Based Map Analysis (workshop topics) Surface Modeling maps the spatial distribution and pattern of point data…  Map Generalization— characterizes spatial trends (tilted plane)  Spatial Interpolation— deriving spatial distributions (e. similarity. Krig)  Other— roving windows and facets (e..g. contiguity) Overlay— map coincidence (point-by-point. optimization) Spatial Analysis investigates the “contextual” relationships in mapped data… Reclassify— reassigns map values (position. decision rules. average. diversity.g.g. map-wide) Distance— proximity and connection (movement. tessellation) Spatial Data Mining investigates the “numerical” relationships in mapped data…  Descriptive— aggregate statistics (e.. density surface. visibility) Neighbors— roving windows (slope. anomaly) (Berry) . stdev. IDW. value.g.

Geographic Distribution (Mapping the Variance) The ―iterative smoothing‖ process is similar to slapping a big chunk of modeler’s clay over the ―data spikes. Standard Deviation Continuous Surface — Geographic Distribution (Berry) .‖ then taking a knife and cutting away the excess to leave a continuous surface that encapsulates the peaks and valleys implied in the original field samples Numeric Distribution — Average.

Spatial Interpolation (soil nutrient levels) Spatial Interpolation maps the geographic distribution inherent in the data Corn Field Phosphorous (P) Data “Spikes” IDW Surface (Berry) .

3 to 11.7 ppm) (Berry) .Comparing Spatial Interpolation Results Comparison of the IDW interpolated surface to the whole field average shows large differences in localized estimates (-16.6 to 80.4 ppm) Comparison of the IDW interpolated surface to the Krig interpolated surface shows small differences in localized estimates (-13.

g. contiguity) Overlay— map coincidence (point-by-point. regression)  Prescription— appropriate actions (e. stdev. average.. diversity.Spatial Data Mining Techniques Grid-Based Map Analysis (workshop topics) Surface Modeling maps the spatial distribution and pattern of point data…  Map Generalization— characterizes spatial trends (tilted plane)  Spatial Interpolation— deriving spatial distributions (e. optimization) Spatial Analysis investigates the “contextual” relationships in mapped data… Reclassify— reassigns map values (position.g. anomaly) (Berry) . tessellation) Spatial Data Mining investigates the “numerical” relationships in mapped data…  Descriptive— aggregate statistics (e.. IDW. optimal paths.g. similarity. size. clustering)  Predictive— relationships among maps (e. visibility) Neighbors— roving windows (slope. decision rules. aspect. shape. value. map-wide) Distance— proximity and connection (movement.g.g.. Krig)  Other— roving windows and facets (e. region-wide. density surface.

Visualizing Spatial Relationships Interpolated Spatial Distribution Phosphorous (P) What spatial relationships do you see? …do relatively high levels of P often occur with high levels of K and N? …how often? …where? HUMANS can ―see‖ broad generalized patterns in a single map variable (Berry) .

Clustering Maps for Data Zones COMPUTERS can ―see‖ detailed patterns in multiple map variables …groups of ―floating balls‖ in data space identify locations in the field with similar data patterns– data zones (Berry) .

g. Prescription Map “As-applied” maps On-the-Fly Yield Map Zone 3 Intelligent Implements Step 5) Step 4) Derived Nutrient Maps Zone 2 Zone 1 Variable Rate Application The yield map 4) is analyzed in combination with soil.. …more generally termed the Spatial Data Mining Process (e.The Precision Ag Process (Fertility example) Steps 1–3) As a combine moves through a field 1) it uses GPS to check its location then 2) checks the yield at that location to 3) create a continuous map of the yield variation every few feet (dependent map variable). terrain and other maps (independent map variables) to derive a ―Prescription Map‖ … 5) …that is used to adjust fertilization levels every few feet in the field (action). Geo-Business application) (Berry) .

2 Discrete Spatial Object (Generalized) Continuous Spatial Distribution (Detailed) Identifies the Central Tendency Maps the Variance (Berry) .Data Analysis Perspectives (Data vs. Geographic Space) Traditional Analysis (Data Space — Non-spatial Statistics) Field Data Map Analysis (Geographic Space — Spatial Statistics) Standard Normal Curve fit to the data Spatially Interpolated data Central Tendency Typical How Typical Average = 22.0 StDev = 18.0 28.7 22.

So Where Are We in Precision Ag? Yield Mapping …done deal for many crops …procedures need validation Soil Nutrient Mapping Mgt Zone Mapping …alternative approaches need study & validation The Full Precision Farming Process IF <condition> THEN <action> …a fair piece to go …based on spatial relationships – Description (Where is What) …coming on line – Prediction (Why and So What) …needs lots of work PA Nugget – Prescription (Do What Where) …barely on the research radar – Action (Precisely Here) …done deal for many farm inputs (Berry) .

. size. tessellation) Spatial Data Mining investigates the “numerical” relationships in mapped data…  Descriptive— aggregate statistics (e..Spatial Analysis Techniques Grid-Based Map Analysis (workshop topics) Surface Modeling maps the spatial distribution and pattern of point data…  Map Generalization— characterizes spatial trends (tilted plane)  Spatial Interpolation— deriving spatial distributions (e. shape. diversity. optimization) Spatial Analysis investigates the “contextual” relationships in mapped data… Reclassify— reassigns map values (position. Krig)  Other— roving windows and facets (e. similarity. map-wide) Distance— proximity and connection (movement. clustering)  Predictive— relationships among maps (e.g. visibility) Neighbors— roving windows (slope. average.g.. stdev. anomaly) (Berry) . regression)  Prescription— appropriate actions (e.g. region-wide.g. contiguity) Overlay— map coincidence (point-by-point. aspect. optimal paths.g. density surface. decision rules. value. IDW.

Micro Terrain Analysis (a simple erosion model) Determining Erosion Potential: slope and flow classes are combined into a single map identifying erosion potential times 10 plus renumber Field Elevation is formed by assigning an elevation value to each cell in an analysis grid (1cm Lidar) (Berry) .

Precision Conservation (compared to Precision Ag) Precision Conservation (Farm.… Focus) Wind Erosion Precision Ag (Individual Field Focus) Chemicals Soil Erosion Runoff Terrain Leaching Leaching Leaching Soils Yield Potassium 3-dimensional Interconnected Perspective (Stewardship Focus) 2-dimensional CIR Image Isolated Perspective (Production Focus) (Berry) . Watershed.

Deriving Erosion Potential (regional scale) Maps of surface flow confluence and slope are calculated by considering relative elevation differences throughout a project area (Berry) .

Calculating Effective Distance (variable-width buffers) Effective erosion buffers around a stream expand and contract depending on the erosion potential of the intervening terrain (Berry) .

Y Data) (2000s) 3D Solid (X.Cyclical Development (future directions) Revisit Analytics Future Directions (2020s) 2D Planar (X.Y.Z Data) Multimedia Mapping Revisit Geo-reference (2010s) Square (4 sides) Hexahedron (6 squares) Contemporary GIS Spatial dB Mgt (1980s) Map Analysis (1990s) The Early Years Mapping focus Data/Structure focus Analysis focus Hexagon (6 sides) Dodecahedron (12 pentagons) Computer Mapping (1970s) .

Is GIS Technology Ahead of Science? Five critical questions underlying Precision Agriculture… Is the ―scientific method‖ relevant in the datarich age of knowledge engineering? 1) Is the ―random thing‖ pertinent in deriving mapped data? 2) Are geographic distributions a natural extension of numerical distributions? 3) Can spatial dependencies within a map variable (spatial autocorrelation) and among map variables (spatial correlation) be modeled? 4) How can ―site-specific‖ analysis and on-farm studies contribute to the scientific body of knowledge? 5) (Berry) .

com/basis/ Online References Analyzing Precision Ag Data …workbook with hands-on exercises Textbook Presentation handout Workbook .innovativegis.Where To Go From Here… www.

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