Disp ersi on C Disp ompen satio ersi on M n Te chn anag eme iques nt s and A

ma P2 n 00 Ve 8E rm E1 a 05 6

ey ks ou 52 Ch 0 v E1 na 8E hi 00 Ab P2 ngra i Dhi 3 Bhav 8EE106 P200

Objectives of the Presentation

Chromatic dispersion causes pulses to spread in time, thus can limit the capacity of a system. Thus it discusses the impact of dispersion on optical communication link. Provides an overview of the origin and implications of chromatic dispersion and, Discusses the tolerance of systems toward it.


Origin of Chromatic Dispersion
Definition: It is the variation of refractive index of a material with wavelength and is responsible for resolution of white light into its constituent colors. The dispersion can be categorized into four types: a) Single-mode Fibers:
i. ii. iii.

Material Dispersion Waveguide Dispersion Polarized Mode Dispersion (PMD) Intermodal Dispersion


Multi-mode Fibers


Material Dispersion Characteristics of Fibers

Few Terms: Speed of propagation of monochromatic light in an optical fiber:



If the Central Frequency is w, and has a small spectral width around it, then a velocity can be associated with this group of frequencies, known as the Group Velocity. where, N is known as the Group Index


The packet of frequencies corresponding to the pulse will arrive at the output of the fiber sometime after the pulse is launched. This delay is the Group Delay, and it is defined as » where L is the Fiber Length

• • • • There are two mechanisms by which the refractive indices can vary with the wavelength of light: the material dispersion and the waveguide dispersion. a pulse code–modulated signal has a spread of wavelengths and so experiences a corresponding spread of each of the core. Sometimes the shorter-wavelength components travel faster than the long-wavelength components. 5 5 . in both cases the pulses are broadened in the time domain as they travel in the fiber. However. This means that each pulse experiences a range of speeds as it passes through the optical fiber. cladding. However. sometimes the opposite occurs. The result is greater broadening. High-data rate channels have shorter pulses and therefore wider spectral bandwidths. and effective refractive indices.

Refractive Index and Group Index of SiO2 glass 66 .

where is expressed as pico-seconds per nanometre of source bandwidth per kilometre of distance (ps/nm-km). v The Change in Pulse Width 77 . . Material Dispersion of a pure Silica glass fiber.v Material Dispersion Parameter.

: where and are the slope at wavelength.• The material dispersion for silica glass with a step index single-mode fiber is given by For theoretical work a simple equation with two parameters offers a reasonable approximation of . respectively and the zero material dispersion The Corning single-mode fiber SMF-28e+ is a typical example of high-quality modern fiber. 88 .

Key Para SMF met res -28e of + fib er 99 .

v Difference between the two refractive indices: ü If similar: light spreads into the cladding to a greater extent. Two factors dictate the core–cladding ratio of guided power. ü If different: the guided wave is more tightly confined to the core. its core diameter. neff varies with the wavelength. This is where effective refractive index (neff) comes into picture to determine the speed of light of the whole guided mode. The variation is small and is known Waveguide Dispersion . this dictates (neff) . Light travels faster in the cladding than in the core. which in turn governs speed of light of the whole guided wave. and the wavelength of light determine the extent to which the guided mode spreads into the cladding. given a core diameter and refractive indices. The fiber’s refractive index profile. 1010 the . Thus. v Ratio of core diameter to wave-length of light: The mode spreads further into the cladding when this ratio is relatively small.Waveguide Dispersion Characteristics of Fibers • • • The optical power travels in both the core and the cladding.

High-capacity optical systems nearly always operate in the fundamental waveguide mode. 2001). 1111 . which has an intensity distribution that is a rotationally symmetrical bell-shaped function (Mynbaef & Scheiner.

Dispersion as a function of Wavelength 1212 .

or PMD. Discussed later…… 1313 .Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD) • The third component of dispersion in single-mode fiber is polarization mode dispersion.

• Consider a step index multimode fiber with two propagating modes: In M ultimod F ib e e rs 1414 .

broadening of the pulse is given by 1515 .s.m. NA stands for the Numerical Aperture of the fiber • The r.• The difference in the delay between the two modes is given by where. and.

This effect is called the intermodal dispersion of the fiber. If the differential delay is equal to the pulse width.Illustration: • Assume that a pulse of nominal width T is launched into the fiber. 1616 . the output consists of two pulses occupying a total width of 2T. • The receiver will therefore detect two pulses when only one was sent.

pulse broadening is The maximum transmission bitrate in terms of the pulse r. . r. for usefull.s.s. the maximum bitrate is 868 Kbit/s. width is given by: Therefore.m.EXAMPLE: • Consider a Multimode Step Index Fibre of 10 km length with a core refractive index of 1.5 and Therefore. not at all 1717 .m.

and a . 1818 . The general equation for the variation of refractive index: . .axial distance. This can be achieved with the use of graded index fiber. where. r . then the differential delay will also be reduced.profile parameter that gives the refractive index profile.Can the differential delay for a multimode fiber be improved?? • • If the flight time of a meridional mode is reduced.relative refractive index difference.

II.• The step index profile is obtained by setting a = ∞ Two effects may be observed: I.The meridional modes are bent toward the axis. reducing their flight time. • 1919 . thereby being the slowest. The axial mode propagates through the area of maximum value of refractive index .

2020 The maximum bitrate that can be used with this graded index fiber is now 434 Mbit/s !! 2020 . the value obtained is Reduction of the differential delay for step index fiber is • The r.m. pulse broadening is now given by there is a reduction For the example shown before.• If electromagnetic theory is employed to analyze the differential delay.s.

Chro mat ic D Miti ispe and high-performance systems ga t i rsio 2121 on n: normally use more than one. The methods are not mutually exclusive. .

Chromatic Dispersion : Mitigation 2222 .

Two categories of EDC : according to whether the operation is performed at the transmitter or at the receiver end of the system. The High-speed Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) to carry out the necessary processing were not available for application at 10 Gbit/s and 40 Gbit/s until recently.Electronic Dispersion Compensation (EDC) • • It has recently become a topic of active research. 2323 .

In either case . Any offset between the two results in a OSNR penalty. ultimately limiting the system reach. v Offset from the optimum net CD The optimum net link CD depends on the transmitter bit rate and spectral characteristics. 2424 . There is also a change in optimum net dispersion with reach in the presence of fiber non-linearity. Many networks are composed of mixed fiber types which makes dispersion estimation even more difficult.Dispersion Management: Practical Limitations v Estimation error for the actual link CD The net dispersion of the link can be estimated by either direct dispersion measurement or by fiber length measurement (OTDR). the estimation error grows with the length of the system.

a complex E-field E/O converter and an electro-optic modulator enables implementation of transmitter based electronic dispersion compensation.Pre-Compensation Tx Electronic Dispersion Compensation • The combination of digital signal processing. high-speed D/A converters. 2525 .

• Selecting a modulation format • 2626 . the incoming data is sampled at the Nyquist rate (T/2).Tx EDC: sampling and pre-coding Up-sampling In order to have sufficient DSP resolution to cover the desired signal spectrum.

• Some pre-coding schemes which can be used in conjunction with electronic dispersion pre-compensation to optimize for the desired application. 2727 .

Tx E/O Converter: DPMZ • An electro-optic modulator that controllably exerts both amplitude and phase modulation on the signal in response to commands from Digital Signal Processing (DSP) electronics. 2828 .

Disadvantages: • The device is not widely used in telecom applications and is somewhat expensive • The structure has relatively high optical loss of 10 to 15 dB due to quadrature bias of the outer Mach-Zehnder • It typically requires high drive voltages to minimize loss. 2929 .Advantages: • Simple EO transfer function • It can access all phase states.

2006). it is a good compromise. Nevertheless. 3030 . especially for use with NRZ signals.Tx E/O Converter: DDMZ • An alternative configuration is the “dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator” It is lower in cost and imposes a loss of only 3 to 6 dB. but it cannot explore the full combination of phase and amplitude states (McGhan.

User provisioned compensation • Requires knowledge of link dispersion (typically +/.1000 ps/nm) • Enables fast reconfiguration • Does not require receiver feedback control • Eliminates dispersion penalty 2. Automatic discovery and optimization • Automatically finds the link net dispersion • Eliminates dispersion penalty 3131 . The following approaches can be used: 1.Tx EDC: control and optimization The CD compensation filter in the transmitter must be set to match the link.

3232 . Depending on the implementation. Based on simulations. MLSE based EDC is promising for CD compensation.Post-Compensation Rx Electronic Dispersion Compensation • • This approach provides the ability to very quickly adapt to un-forecasted CD changes. significant gains in CD limited reach can be expected with Rx EDC.

Disadvantage: In 10-Gbit/s applications. In contrast. most useful for cost-sensitive applications. • It uses combined probabilities based on received A/D samples and expected incoming bit sequences to “map” the most likely bit sequence from the raw data. In order to compensate for chromatic dispersion. such as long-reach PONs (Passive Optical Networks) and metropolitan networks. transmitter-end EDC has provided chromatic dispersion compensation for 10-Gbit/s systems of up to 5200 km 3333 • • • . • • The highest probability path through the trellis identifies the received bit pattern. Therefore. it tends to be limited to system spans of a few hundred kilometres because the required processing grows exponentially with the dispersion that has been accumulated in the system.Rx EDC: MLSE Equalizer The MLSE (maximum likelihood sequence estimator) uses a fast analogueto-digital converter to digitize raw received data samples. Advantage: Doesn’t require expensive and lossy opto-electronic modulators. the length of the trellis should be close to the duration of the dispersed pulse..

3434 .

which leads to space reductions. Therefore. Indeed. . for several reasons : – – The cost of electronic integrated circuits is commonly lower than that of optical components.Comparison with other Techniques • The key advantage of EDC over optical techniques is cost. Negative-dispersion fiber (NDF) (especially DCF for use in modules) has a small effective core area and a relatively high GeO2 content. it is more susceptible to nonlinear crosstalk and RBS (Rayleigh Back-Scattering) . When receiver-end EDC is used. for national and transoceanic applications. EDC combined with FEC (forward error correction) and alternative modulation formats will reduce but not eliminate the 3535 dependence on NDF and other optical methods. • Considering the technical nature. it is possible to integrate the required processors with the receiver circuitry. amplified DCMs can be complicated subsystems • Conclusion: We tentatively suggest that. especially with volume production.

Abhinav Takes Over… 3636 .



Ø Ø Ø . Polarization mode dispersion: if waveguide is birefringent. Material dispersion: the index of refraction of the medium changes with wavelength.Types of Dispersion Ø Modal dispersion: different modes propagate at different group velocities. Waveguide dispersion: index change across waveguide means that different wavelengths have different delays.


Dispersion compensation example .

. S2 is the total length of the DCF that must be used to achieve 100% compensation.DCF Length Required for Perfect Compensation In order to provide ideal dispersion compensation in this way. the fiber lengths and dispersion coefficients must obey S1 D1 = S2 D2----------------------(1) where S1 is the total length of the SMF in the link. the fiber lengths and dispersion coefficients must obey this equation. while D1 and D2 are the dispersion values for the SMF and DCF respectively in order to provide ideal dispersion compensation in this way.


Dispersion map .

In WDM operation each channel experiences a different value of D.High data rate channels &/ or WDM Ø Operating with high-data rate channels and/or WDM is a little more complicated. These systems have very broad bandwidth pulses. Ø Ø . In both cases. for all others it is merely an approximation. the consequence is that equation applies only at one particular wavelength. which means that D varies slightly across the pulse spectrum.

Over M Channels • Variation of the dispersion coefficients of the PDF over m channels • • Consequences for the channels with the most extreme wavelengths. .

Dispersion slope

These figures shows the outcome in WDM operation and tells that some channels are not well compensated because equation is not getting satisfied for all the channels. And that equation is applied sufficiently closely Therefore, we must take the dispersion slopes of the two fibers into account and an additional equation must be satisfied. SPDF LPDF = SNDF LNDF --------------(2) where S = dD/dl.

For practical reasons, length of the DCF should be as small as possible. This can be achieved only if the magnitude of dispersion for the DCF is large and has opposite sign to the dispersion parameter of the regular fiber . An optical fiber with a small core diameter and a high-index difference between core and cladding can exhibit such desirable properties. Such a fiber can be manufactured by carefully modifying its index profile and the relative index values such that large negative waveguide dispersion overcomes small positive material dispersion resulting in the net high value of negative dispersion .

To obtain such a relative index, it demands a heavy doping of the fiber core. Typically up to 25% of the core should be germanium which is added to the silica during the manufacturing process. However, such high level of doping increases Rayleigh scattering losses High negative dispersion may also be achieved by decreasing the core radius during manufacturing process; however it will also result in increasing the scattering loss . For this reason, attenuation in a DCF is much higher than in a regular fiber

Due to their higher attenuation, DCFs were not widely used until advent of optical amplifiers around the 1990 after which the development of the DCFs accelerated in pace. Narrower core radius of DCF also causes the optical signal to be more tightly confined. It results in a high level of nonlinear effects in DCF than in regular fiber. Despite of their narrower core, more attenuation and nonlinearity than in a regular fiber, DCFs are being used extensively for dispersion compensation especially in longhaul optical communications.

5 dB at each end. the dispersion map of the whole system may have to be revised. The DCF has to be spliced at both ends to the relatively large-core transmission fiber and. by incorporating additional optical add-drop multiplexers or WDM channels). The small-core waveguide structure of the DCF causes another problem: splicing loss .PROBLEMS IN DCF Ø Ø Ø Ø When network usage changes (for example. even with the use of special mode field adaptation techniques. . we can anticipate a typical loss of 0.

PART-2 Optical Dispersion Compensation: Chirped Fiber Bragg Gratings .

Typically. a few mm or cm and the period is of the order of hundreds of nanometer.Fiber Bragg Gratings A fiber Bragg grating is a periodic or aperiodic perturbation of the effective refractive index in the core of an optical fiber . the perturbation is approximately periodic over a certain length of e. Wavelength ref Is given by ü .g.

Types of Fiber Bragg Grating Each of them has a very Specific application. ü a linear variation in the grating period is called a chirp which is used for Dispersion compensation ü With a changing Grating Period wavelength reflected Changes which give us a Broadened reflected spectrum ü .

which is one that has a superposed variation so that the period of the refractive Index changes slowly over the length of the grating. the structure used in a dispersion compensator is a chirped grating. there will be a very narrow bandwidth reflection of any incident light with a peak wavelength in the glass that is twice the periodicity of the perturbations.q q q If the perturbation is periodic. such as a sinusoid with respect to the length. Actually in this case the refractive index perturbations are more closely spaced at one end of the grating than the other. . However.

FBG with a Circulator .

It is thus possible to a good approximation to use the chirped grating to cancel the group delay that the pulse has accumulated during its progress over a span of a transmission fiber.q q q In this way. When a pulse enters the chirped grating. its long. . as illustrated in the figure.and short-wavelength components propagate into the grating to different extents and therefore experience different phase delays. the grating reflects a greater range of wavelengths.

q Figure shows how the chirped FBG is normally used with a circulator to ensure that the reflected pulse can continue on its path through the system. .

there is no need to include dedicated amplification.5 to 2. . In contrast to DCMs.Advantage over DCF • • • • FBG dispersion compensators offer the advantage over DCMs of being low form factor components that do not contribute significant nonlinear crosstalk.5 dB for the double passage of the light. Moreover. Their loss is dominated by the circulator and is typically 1. chirped FBGs can be incorporated into optical add-drop multiplexers to perform simultaneous channel selection and dispersion compensation.

free from high-frequency ripples). chirped FBGs operate over a much narrower bandwidth than NDF based solutions and so can only compensate for one or a small number of channels.. such as a thermal packaging to cancel any wavelength drifting of the reflectance profile. . To provide a means.e. To fabricate the grating with low polarization mode dispersion and polarization dependent loss.Challenges • ü ü ü Unfortunately. Three challenges for grating manufacturers are To ensure that the group delay is spectrally uniform (i.


where a number of frequencies are interleaved. dispersion is compensated using all pass filters .All pass filters (APF’s) All Pass filters are used to compensate the chromatic dispersion in wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) optical fiber communication system. Response of All pass filters q q variable phase response Constant amplitude. .

Ø The “variable phase response “ of the APFs makes them to be used as the phase equalizers to compensate the chromatic dispersion. Hence the need of digital filters (all pass filters or raised cosine filters) is realized by which the multiple channels can be compensated with a single device because of the periodic properties of the phase response and impulse response of these filters respectively Ø .

The period of frequency response of all pass filters is usually referred to as Free spectral range (FSR).• • These All Pass Filters (APF’s) are linear systems. the frequency response of a filter is written as H(ω ) = |H(ω )| exp[ jφ (ω ) ] --------------(3) . which have an amplitude response that is constant over all frequencies and a phase response that varies with frequency. Mathematically.

.Then for an APF |H(ω )| = c where c is a constant and φ (ω ) can be made arbitrarily close to any desired phase response. further group delay can be enhanced by adding more number of stages . ü ü With this characteristic the nth-order dispersion is evaluated as 1/( FSR)^n. Adding stages to the APF help in recovering group delay that is lost when the FSR is Increased.However it increases loss in the system.

• The dispersion compensation obtained experimentally is D ~ N/( FSR)^2. Δ^2 -------------------(4) • • where N is number of channels and Δ is distance of poles and zeros of the unit circle. The dispersion may be increased by reducing the FSR with the introduction of more number of stages or by reducing the Δ . .



APF may be implemented using Directional couplers. By connecting any one of the outputs through a delay to any one of the inputs a single stage APF can be realized. .• • • For the design of an APF. Since APF gives complexity and increases cost so new class of digital filters called raised cosine filters are now introduced to compensate dispersion. a four port device with frequency independent matrix elements can be considered.

For different frequencies different architectures of the FBGs have to be introduced along the fiber link. FBGs and EDC are not suitable for dispersion compensation in WDM system. Ø Ø DCFs give high insertion loss.Why All Pass Filters ???? The traditional techniques like DCFs. large footprint. the number of DCFs has to be installed making the system complex and costly. The same problem is with the FBGs which compensate the dispersion by the recompression of an optical signal. Also for the multiple channels in WDM system. . and nonlinear distortions when the input signal is high etc.

Why all pass filters ??????? Ø EDC is rendered ineffective for WDM system since it is complex and also not a direct method of compensation as it involve the optical to electronic and electrical to optical conversions making the WDM communication slow which can’t be tolerable in this growing world. .

PART-4 Optimization Of residual dispersion map .

and before the receiver (post compensation). which includes adjusting the amounts of group-velocity dispersion (GVD) compensation after the transmitter (pre compensation). limiting the maximum transmission distance.and cross-phase modulation combined with the group velocity dispersion result in intensity distortion of the propagating signals in WDM links. within the repeaters (in-line compensation).Dispersion management is one of the effective techniques to reduce the nonlinear impairment in fiber transmission systems. . The transmission distances can be increased by optimizing the dispersion map to reduce the impact of nonlinearities. Nonlinear fiber effects such as self.

How a map looks like ??? .

and the amount of post compensation. 2) Lengths and dispersions of each fiber section used to form the dispersion map. . 3) Residual dispersion per map period.The parameters that can be adjusted are – 1) Amount of pre compensation.

and post. q . q This residual GVD decreases proportionally to the square of the bit-rate. making it especially critical at high bit-rates.we are focused on the cumulated GVD at the end of the link. operating at 1550 nm. inline and post-DCFs.DCFs is a 2-spans system. The simplest fiber link that could require an in-line DCF in addition to pre. Consider an optical fiber link consisting of two 80 km fiber spans along with pre-.

.dispersion compensated fiber placed at the start of the link. setups 1 to 3 are helpful in observing the effects of different locations of DCFs on pulse degradation. DCF-1 & DCF-2 are placed after SMF-1 & SMF-2 . DCF-0 ------.represent single mode fiber two spans.Study of 2 span fiber system • • • SMF-1 & SMF-2 ----.


3) 4) .

C ----------mean fiber and DCF parameters N .M ---------total number of SMF spans and DCFs respectively. F.---------Length of the fiber D ------------Dispersion [ps/(nm.Modifying the earlier equation for N span links the residual dispersion d (ps/nm) can be represented as • • • • L --.km)]. .

• Thus. the total required DCF length denoted as given by is Table .

the total DCF length of 32 km required for 100% compensation is used for computing the percent dispersion compensation at a given location. the length of the DCF at each location will be allowed to vary from 0 to 32 km with a step size of 1 km. . For dispersion-map optimization. In the following discussions for 2.Optimization From equation () and parameters in last Table .spans system. Thus 25% DCF length means that 8 km long DCF is placed at that location. a 2×80 km fiber link would require a DCF length of 32 km for 100% compensation.

1) The overall compensation amount of the system is selected. a system that uses perfect compensation is focused . For simplicity. the launch power. in this chapter. i. Since the pulse shape also depends upon SPM.Optimization Procedure • Dispersion compensation can be viewed as a two-step process.e. 2) Choosing an optimum dispersion-map to achieve the over-all dispersion level selected in the first step. this decision making is further complicated by the inclusion of another variable.


9434-9.W %0/8507843.8 =.30/05072039.425038.

0847- 70/:.9434124703:2-074189.3.0  W %0/85078432.041 5408.70.3/07484190:39.3/8/89. $# ) )  ) ) W 07083:2-0741..80/-70/:.7.3308.-03.390$# 9903974/:.390 .



09 1706:03.970020398.943.343041904:95:98974:.93.80/.438/070/ W ..3/0503/0392..70.08.4898430 .90/8507843 .425038./0.0!.94 .808.3/3.-025020390/:8370.4:5078 W $3.42509.8841/9..3-0 .483019078.0/7.3430419035:98.14:75479/0.3-0 70.3! .0/94.0!..W 4790/08341.83089.7034 3974/:.0/ !2.4330.. .19078.

.894-0389.3/ .83.7.!.094-03974/:.889078 %097.0/.90.3/.-0147/8507843.36:0808 8..7/89479438039035:983.9:70841908..03807943488 .9090/8507843-9070. 47/11070391706:03.3/ 34330.809.425038.0/2.70 3498:9. .39088902 .42570884341.08/1107039 .43 901-073 .7014495739 .3308388902 90 3:2-07418./943.20574-0289908 .  84147902:950.90.489  %08.943388902  8 .4250.425038.3 459.

.5.-039874347/ .943 84.4.425038..0784382.8819078   8703/070/30110.94 459.01478890283.3 9-09407.893..../70.9743.92094/41.97.098 .5..422:3.3/.43.4250.3/00.9.8819078 .943 .390.84349...090459..9400.

5 . /85078432.!#%  592.943 1 708/:.

94134330.3828843/89.0 %097.04.943  .9/8507843708:93390389/89479434190 5745.9 /8507843 ' .943.24:3984174:5 .7908 .425038.3.425038.9383.36:089470/:.3..3828843889028  .19079097.0.988:.42-30/990 74:5./:89390.3/-014709070.943.090.70.8801 .7203931-0797.02039 843041900110..07 5489.08.3.943 93907050.8507843 2.943  4330.090 25.725.2:2 97.0 9034330.8338 293902.3.9078 3 30.8024/:.71-070110.3829907 570 . .:/08.425038.3828843/89.9..04.3/.80/-4592390/85078432.59470/:.3-0 3.7488 5.425038.

54480 .4.2.

/:890/..943  0398.24:3941 5489./85078435072.7.3/90.70  24:3941570.3-0.943:80/94 147290/85078432.55074/ .1-0780.%05.3//85078438410.425038.2090789..9.425038.5  #08/:.943 .

9 32 .4:/ 706:70.:2:.9490 86:..7014.90/'.33 303..3459.908  %08250891-0739.3888902 438/07.:80/4390.3/5489 8 4507..704190-9 7..1-073.439570 330. 4194 21-0785.38. 85.0.90 2.99003/4190 3  %8708/:.808574547943.//94394570 ..3/5489 88 .'/0.9 -9 7.9.

.1907$  $   809:5894.90/1-075.../.70051:3 4-807.9841/11070394.$9:/4185.3900110.425038.0/.7941903 W    .943841843 5:80/07.38 W   /8507843.31-0788902 W $  $  70570803983024/01-0794 85.0/.705.943 .990 89.

'# &$! $$!$ % #   .


4/13900.94314785.33890708/:.70706:. /8507843/ 58.

32 .8 W W W W  03941901-07  850784358.3-07057080390/..

3/5.31-07.7.3/8 70850.0 .9.38.3:2-0741$85. 32 2 (    20.209078   949.

-0 .88 .W %:8 90949.706:70/039/03490/.03- %.

.425038.99..943 74206:.0/.592.2090783.389.9243 85.943-0 .943 .40/94..:88438147 85.3/5.943 3901443/8.943 900394190.039412706:70/147  .9438:80/147.890580412 .039/8507843 .425038.943.71742 9429.4.89%.425038...943 47/8507843 2.  2 1-0734:/706:70.5 4592.039412147  .7.425:9390507.90.-0 ..9.034.38 88902 90949..943  %:803920.94.

50.07 .9:80850710.3-0.943.7.94 8905 574./85078430.943.594.381:7907.088  %04.:3.9 .0905:808.425038..24:394190889028 800.9 398.00/.943!74.:84341....8432.592.5907 ..84/0503/8 :543$! 98/0.07.90/39017898905 $3..0/:70 W 8507843.425038.425.090 4.8.0.-0  0 90.34592:2/8507843 2.90/- 903.943814.34907.90/  4483.:80/ .889029.5407 47 825.425038.0800.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful