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Routing protocols

Random and perhaps constantly changing

Not engineered

Elastic data applications which use networks to communicate

A "mobile ad hoc network" (MANET) is an autonomous system of mobile routers (and associated hosts) connected by wireless links --the union of which form an arbitrary graph. The routers are free to move randomly and organize themselves arbitrarily; thus, the network's wireless topology may change rapidly and unpredictably.Such a network may operate in a standalone fashion, or may be connected to the larger Internet. Sensor nodes consist of sensing, data processing, and communication components and typically form ad hoc networks.Due to a lack of infrastructure support, each node acts as a router, forwarding data packets for other nodes.

Can be classified into two

Server: Contain the complete DBMS and bear primary responsibility for data broadcast and satisfying client queries. Clients: Have sufficient resources to cache portions of the database as well as storing some DBMS query and processing modules. Practical Use : Whenever a temporary network with no infra structure needed.

Rescue situations: Rescue workers engaged in disaster relief investigate the extent of the damage around them and collaboratively work by sharing the information on their locations and findings.
Excavations: Members of a research project team engaged in an archeological excavation collect various phenomenal data from sensors and share the obtained data with other members to streamline work.

Criteria node to be part of a network:

To be connected to a network, a node should must be within the area of influence of at least one node on the network. A node with no remaining power, or one that is off, is not currently a part of the network. Even if the source and the destination nodes are not within each others communication range, data packets are forwarded to the destination by relaying transmission through other nodes that exist between the two nodes.


Exploration Network is explored to find possible routes Of which one is selected Example: IEEE 802.5 Source Routing Bellman-Ford algorithm does this in a distributed manner Called "Distance Vector" these days Generates routes to a node from somewhere else Shortest Path First (Ford, CACM, 1968) does this in a database Djikstra applied to networks, 1972 A Generates routes from a node to B somewhere else


Bellman-Ford-Moore proof In any graph there exists a spanning tree Ford (1956), Bellman (1958), Moore (1958)
Spanning tree: A set of arcs which visits every node in a graph exactly once


A route between two nodes is found by sending an Route Request Route Request builds a source route on every path through the network First Route Request to arrive is accepted; target responds on that path and tells initiator what the source route is Source route is used on subsequent data traffic

Detected Source Route: (A, B, F, J, K) A

ROUTE DISCOVERY DYNAMICALLY: A route between two nodes is found by sending an Route Request to a locality

Initial locality small, grows with failure After that, a little larger than the locality target last found in

Route Response sent

By target if necessary By neighboring routing node if possible to join existing route

Network stores the route

d e

APPLICATION: Traffic networks:

Smart cars and smart roads Onboard systems talk to the road: Map obstacles and delays Obtain maps Inform the road of its actions

Military applications:

Combat regiment in the field Perhaps 4000-8000 objects in constant unpredictable motion Intercommunication of forces Proximity, function, plan of battle Special issues Low probability of detection Random association and topology


Topology information distributed to the set of systems that are deemed to need it.

You need information about a routing node if your routing would use it

Therefore every routing node effectively calculates all routes from all nodes for which it has information


Each device emits a periodic Hello Advertise itself to its neighbors Determine who else is there Select some systems to act as MultiPoint Relays


Passes Topology Information Acts as router between hosts, in wired parlance Minimizes information retransmission Forms a routing backbone

Routing protocols:


1 Pro-active (table-driven) routing 2 Reactive (on-demand) routing 3 Flow-oriented routing 4 Adaptive (situation-aware) routing 5 Hybrid (both pro-active and reactive) routing 6 Hierarchical routing protocols 7 Host Specific Routing protocols 8 Geographical routing protocols 9 Power-aware routing protocols 10 Multicast routing 11 Geographical multicast protocols (Geocasting)

Latest protocols: Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV)Protocol Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Protocol The study reveals that, DSDV routing protocol consumes more bandwidth, because of the frequent broadcasting of routing updates. While the AODV is better than DSDV as it doesnt maintain any routing tables at nodes which results in less overhead and more bandwidth. From the above, chapters, it can be assumed that DSDV routing protocols works better for smaller networks but not for larger networks. So, my conclusion is that, AODV routing protocol is best suited for general mobile ad-hoc networks as it consumes less bandwidth and lower overhead when compared with DSDV routing protocol.

To be able to combine Web Services and mobile ad hoc networks(MANETs). We suggest that a peer-to-peer (p2p)architecture is used .this decision is based on the fact that many p2p networks are content driven and therefore participants in these kinds of networks search for services instead of addresses as in MANET. The load on the network can be issue if the network gets too extensive, since every peer produces traffic by sending out advertisements, requests etc. As we have not made any simulations in the work, it is hard to estimate how an extensive network is defined. Due to this it is difficult to predict how this will affect the communication.

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