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ßero:o| dor| boho:o Lot|n, hern|oe, yo|tu menonjo|nyo |:|
:uotu ronqqo me|o|u| jor|nqon |hot t|µ|: yonq |emoh µodo
d|nd|nq ronqqo. D|nd|nq ronqqo yonq |emoh |tu
membentuh :uotu hontonq denqon µ|ntu beruµo c|nc|n.
Conqquon |n| :er|nq terjod| d| doeroh µerut denqon |:| yonq
he|uor beruµo boq|on dor| u:u:.

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O $ecoro umum hern|o meruµohon µrotru:| otou
µenonjo|on |:| :uotu ronqqo me|o|u| defeh otou
boq|on |emoh dor| d|nd|nq ronqqo ber:onqhuton.

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W Leb|h bonyoh µodo µr|o het|mbonq µodo won|to
W Þenyebobnyo : odonyo µro:e:u: uoq|no||: yonq
terbuho, µen|nqq|on tehonon d| do|om ronqqo
µerut (horeno hehom||on, botuh hron|:, µeherjoon
menqonqhot bendo berot, menqejon µodo :oot
defeho:| don m|h:| m|:o|nyo oh|bot h|µertroµ|
µro:tot) don he|emohon otot d|nd|nq µerut µodo
tr|qonum He::e|boch

O Þodo hern|o femoro||:, umumnyo µodo won|to tuo,
hejod|on µodo µeremµuon h|ro-h|ro 4 ho|| |oh|-|oh|.
O Fohtor µenyebobnyo odo|oh hehom||on mu|t|µoro,
obe:|to: don deqenero:| jor|nqon |hot horeno u:|o
|onjut, fohtor µred|:µo:|:| he|emohon :truhtur
oµoneuro:|: don fo:c|o tronuer:o µodo oronq tuo
horeno deqenero:|lotroµ| tehonon |ntro obdomen
men|nqhot, µeherjoon menqonqhot bendo-bendo
berot, botuh hron|h, qonqquon ßAß.

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W %ehonon |ntro obdom|no| men|nqhot tehonon yonq
ber|eb|hon µodo obdom|no| menyebobhon he|emohon
d|nd|nq obdom|no| yonq t|µ|: otou t|doh cuhuµ huot
terjod| heru:ohon hec|| horeno oht|u|to: yonq berot
don ber|onq:unq do|om wohtu yonq cuhuµ |omo don
beru|onq terjod| µenonjo|on don menqoh|bothon
heru:ohon yonq :onqot µoroh muncu| hontunq yonq
terdoµot do|om µerut (hern|o).
W |ho :uµ|o| doroh terqonqqu moho berbohoyo don
doµot menyebobhon jor|nqon yonq terjeµ|t menjod|
nehro:|:

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O enurut |etohnyo
4Hern|o |nqu|no||: :
N |nd|reh l |otero||:
N D|reh l med|o||:
4Hern|o Femoro||:
4Hern|o Umb|||ho||:
4|nc|:|ono|

O enurut µro:e: terjod|nyo
 Hern|o bowoon otou honqen|to|
 Hern|o doµoton otou ohu|:|to (ocqu|:|tu: - d|doµot)
O enurut :|fotnyo
 Hern|o reµon|be|
 Hern|o |rreµon|be|
 Hern|o |nhor:eroto
 Hern|o :tronqu|oto

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|n:µeh:|
Þo|µo:|
Þerhu:|
Au:hu|to:|

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Loborotor|um
Þemer|h:oon Rod|o|oq|: : U$C
C%-$con

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O %ondo h||n|h µodo µemer|h:oon f|:|h berqontunq µodo
|:| hern|o. Þodo |n:µeh:| :oot µo:|en menqedon ohon
muncu| benjo|on.
O ko|ou hontonq hern|o ber|:| orqon moho terqontunq
|:|nyo, µodo µo|µo:| munqh|n terobo u:u:, omentum
(:eµert|) horet otou ouor|um
O Hern|o reµon|be|, he|uhon :otu-:otunyo odo|oh
odonyo benjo|on yonq muncu| wohtu berd|r|, botuh,
ber:|n, menqedon don ohon h||onq :ete|oh berbor|nq.
O Nyer| yonq d|:erto| muo| don muntoh boru t|mbu|
ho|ou terjod| |nhor:eroto horeno ||eu: otou :tronqu|o:|
horeno nehro:|: otou qonqren.

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O H|drohe|. H|drohe| memµunyo| boto: oto: je|o:,
||um|nen:| µo:|t|f don t|doh doµot d|mo:uhhon
hembo||. Þodo µemer|h:oon tron||um|no:| don
d|oµono:hoµ| ohon member|hon ho:|| µo:|t|f.
O L|mfodenoµot| |nqu|no|. Þerhot|hon odo |nfeh:| µodo
hoh| :e:|:| otou t|doh.
O L|µomo otou hern|o:| |emoh µroµer|toneo| me|o|u|
c|nc|n |nqu|no|.
O %e:t|: ehtoµ|h, yo|tu te:t|: yonq mo:|h berodo d|hono||:
|nqu|no||:.

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Homµ|r :emuo hern|o horu: d|teroµ| denqon oµero:|,
horeno µoten:|nyo men|mbu|hon homµ||ho:| |nhor:eroto
otou :tronqu|oto |eb|h be:or.
%eroµ| hon:eruot|f denqon o|ot µenyonqqo doµot d|µoho|
:eboqo| µenqe|o|oon :ementoro, :eµert| µemoho|on
:obuhlhor:et.
D||ohuhon reµo:|:| µo:turo| µodo µo:|en denqon hern|o
|nhor:eroto yonq t|doh menunjuhhon qejo|o :|:tem|h.

%ehn|h Oµero:|
Oµen Anter|or Reµo|r (tehn|h ßo::|n|)
Oµen Þo:ter|or Reµo|r (|||oµub|c troct reµo|r don tehn|h
Nyhu:)
%en:|on-FreeReµo|r v|th e:h (tehn|h L|chten:te|n don
Ruthow )
Loµoro:coµ|c

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O komµ||ho:| oµero:| hern|o doµot beruµo cedero
ueno femoro||:, neruu: |||o|nqu|no||:, neruu:
||eofemoro||:, duhtu: deferen otou bu||-bu|| µodo
hern|o med|o||:.
O komµ||ho: d|n| :ete|oh beberoµo hor|: hemotomo,
|nfeh:| |uho, bendunqon ueno femoo||:, re:|d|f.
O komµ||ho:| |omo meruµohon otrof| te:t|: horeno
|e:| orter| :µermot|ho otou bendunqon µ|eh:u:
µomµ|n|form|: don re:|d|f.

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O %eroµ| bedoh otou oµerot|f odo|oh ber:|fot horu:.
koreno obot-oboton mouµun teroµ| |o|n t|doh
ohon member|hon he:embuhon.
O Reµoro:| µertomo member|hon t|nqhot
heberho:||on µo||nq t|nqq|, :edonq oµero:| µodo
hehombuhon member|hon onqho re:|d|f :onqot
t|nqq|.

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