DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF VACUUM TABLE

By


Jagadheesh Raju .K
Reg no: 03BME806



Under the guidance of
Mr: R. Ramesh Babu
1.0 PROBLEM DEFINITION

NEED FOR WORKING DEVICES FOR
FRAGILE AND OTHER ENGINEERING
MATERIALS WHICH SAVES HOLDING
& POSITIONING TIME AND PROVIDES
ACCURACY
2.0 PROJECT OBJECTIVE


Design and Develop a work holding device for
holding of fragile and other engineering
materials.
 In the metalworking sphere, this inertia includes the premise that secure
and reliable work holding is possible only by mechanical means.
 In the past, acceptance of vacuum chucks has been limited by
persistence of traditional practices, as well as by some common misconceptions.
Despite evidence to the contrary, for example, the belief that persist that vacuum
chucks aren’t sturdy enough to withstand heavy machining operations. Another
prevalent assumption is that vacuum chucks are only suitable for small work
pieces. Reinforcing this view, many of the vacuum chucks in use today do serve
small application.
LITERATURE SURVEY
 Ceramic is important material in Aerospace engineering. But it
is difficult to machine by using mechanical &magnetic type work
holders

 Holding of fragile & non ferrous material is difficult with help of
normal work holders

 All problems can be eliminated by vacuum type work holder
3.0 METHODOLOGY
• Factors to be considered for machining.
• Design calculation for the factors
considered.
• Design of venturiblock, vacuum table and
other accessories.
• Manufacturing and assembly.
• Testing and validation.

3.1 Factors to be considered for machining

3.1.1 FORCES IN MILLING:-

•TANGENTIAL (CUTTING) FORCES

This acts in a direction tangential to the fixed work piece and
represents the resistance to the rotation of the tool


•LONGITUDINAL (THRUST-FEED) FORCES

Longitudinal force acts in the direction parallel to the axis of the
work and represents the resistance to the longitudinal feed of the work piece


•RADIAL (PASSIVE) FORCES

Radial forces acts in a radial direction from the center line of the
workpiece
3.1.2 MACHINING PARAMETERS

There are three important parameters in milling operation
 Cutting speed
 Depth of cut
 Feed rate


i. CUTTING SPEED:-
Cutting speed refers to the relative surface speed between tool and work


ii. DEPTH OF CUT :-
The depth of cut relates to the depth the tool cutting edges engages the
workpiece


iii. FEED RATE :-
The feed rate is the axial advance of the tool along the work for each
revolution of the work

Based on above graphs, cutting force is maximum among all
forces while machining
DESIGN CALCULATION FOR THE FACTORS CONSIDERED

3.2 Cutting Force

Specific cutting energy: A parameter giving an indication of the

efficiency of the process , independent of cutting speed, defined

as the energy consumed per unit volume o f removed metal

The rate of energy consumed during machining P
m
is
P
m
=F
C
*V

Energy consumed per unit volume of metal removed, specific cutting energy ps is


P
s
=
C
c
w
m
A
F
Z
P
=
If A
C
=1 , then P
S
=F
C

Where P
m
= Power consumed

F
C
= Cutting force

V = Cutting speed

Z
W
= Metal removal rate

A
c
= Undeformed chip cross section area

P
s
= Specific cutting energy
Based on above tabular column refractory alloys has max.
Specific cutting energy value of 9.6 W-s/mm
3

So max cutting force is 9.6 N
Material
Specific energy
W-s/mm
3

Aluminum alloy 0.4 to 1.1
Cast irons 1.6 to 5.5
Copper alloys 1.4 to 3.3
High-temperature alloys 3.3 to 8.5
Magnesium alloys 0.4 to 0.6
Nickel alloys 4.9 to 6.8
Refractory alloys 3.8 to 9.6
Stainless steels 3.0 to 5.2
Steels 2.7 to 9.3
Titanium alloys 3.0 to 4.1
APROXIMATE ENERGY EQUIREMENTS IN CUTTING OPERATION

3.3 Design of venturiblock, vacuum table and other
accessories

 Max cutting force during machining is 9.6 N
 For machining vacuum force of work of work holder should be more
then cutting force


VACUUM FORCE= VACUUM PRESSURE X AREA OF CONTACT OF
VACUUM WITH JOB


VACUUM PRESSURE CAN BE CREATED WITH FOLLOWING WAYS:
1. VACUUM PUMP
2. VENTURI VACUUM PUMP




VENTURI VACUUM PUMP SELECTED FOR VACUUM TABLE
BASED ON FOLLOWING REASONS & COMPRESSED AIR AVAILABLE
WITH US

In general the following are the advantages of using venturi
vacuum generators:

i. Fast cycling
ii. Temperatures
iii. Corrosive environments
iv. Noise levels
v. Contamination
vi. Ease of mounting
vii. Maintenance
viii. Lower Cost


When Is A Venturi Undesirable?
 One of the basic requirement of a venturi vacuum generator is
compressed air. If compressed air is not available, an electric vacuum
pump is the only alternative.
 If constant vacuum flow is required, venture may not be the most
efficient device compared to vacuum pumps . Also, if the application
requires a large vacuum flow at high vacuum, a vacuum pump may be
more energy efficient then a venture.

3.3.1 VENTURI BLOCK DESIGN: (using Bernoulli’s theorem)


VACUUM FORCE =VACUUM PRESSURE *AREA
=VACUUM PRESSURE * AREA BASED ON JOB

Take minimum area as 30*30=900 mm2
=0.0009 m2

Cutting force as per data =9.6 N
=10 N
10 N = vacuum pressure * 0.0009 m2

Vacuum pressure =11111.1 N/m2
= 83.3 mm of Hg
=80 mm of Hg

Factor of safety taken as 5

So required vacuum pressure is 400 mm of Hg

8 . 234
4
2
1
1
= =
D
Q
V
t
µ µ µ
2 1
2
2
2 2
1
2
1 1
2 2
÷
A
+ + + = + +
p
gz
V p
gz
V p
0
2 1
= A
÷
p
2 1
gz gz =
2
2
2
4
D
Q
V
t
=
4
1
2
1
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
D
D
4
2
2
D t
µ
) ( 2
2 1
p p ÷
AVAILABLE DATA:
Discharge Q=30 CFM =.0149m
3
/s
Pressure P
1
=80 psi =551428.6 N/m
2

Pressure P
1
=-400mm of hg =-53328.9N/m
2

Diameter D
1
= 9mm =.009m

Calculation:

m/s

;
V
2
= 1124.5 m/s



D2=.004 m


Q=
VACUUM FORCE =VACUUM PRESSURE *AREA

=400 mm of hg * AREA BASED ON JOB
3.3.2 Design Of Vacuum table

VACUUM TABLE HEIGHT= 300 mm
VACUUM TABLE WIDTH = 300 mm
VACUUM TABLE DEPTH = 70 mm
HOLE DIAMETER = 10 mm
GAP BETWEEN TWO HOLES (Pitch) = 15mm
GAP BETWEEN HOLES & Edges x axis) = 25 mm
GAP BETWEEN HOLES & Edges y axis) = 22.5 mm
NO. OF HOLES = 288
WALL THICKNESS = 16mm

TOP & BOTTOM PLATE THIK = 10 mm
Vacuum table rough diagram
S.
N.
Piece
dimensions
Hole
dia Gap
No. of holes
Total
no. of
holes
Radiu
s Area
Total
area(m
m2)
Total
area(m2
)
Force
(N) X Y Xh Yh
1 30 30 10 5 2 2 4 5 78.5 314 0.0003 15.9
2 30 30 10 2.5 2.4 2.4 5.8 5 78.5 452.2 0.00045 22.9
3 30 30 5 5 3 3 9 2.5 19.6 176.6 0.00018 8.9
4 30 30 5 2.5 4 4 16 2.5 19.6 314 0.00031 15.9
5 30 30 4 2.5 4.6 4.6 21.3 2 12.6 267.6 0.00027 13.6
6 30 30 4 2 5 5 25 2 12.6 314 0.00031 15.9
7 30 30 2.5 2.5 6 6 36 1.3 4.9 176.6 0.00018 8.9
8 30 30 2.5 2 6.7 6.7 44.4 1.3 4.9 218.1 0.00022 11
9 30 30 2 2 7.5 7.5 56.3 1 3.1 176.6 0.00018 8.9
10 30 30 2 1.5 8.6 8.6 73.5 1 3.1 230.7 0.00023 11.7
11 30 30 2 1 10 10 100 1 3.1 314 0.00031 15.9
12 30 30 1.5 1 12 12 144 0.8 1.8 254.3 0.00025 12.9
13 30 40 10 5 2 2.7 5.3 5 78.5 418.7 0.00042 21.2
14 30 40 10 2.5 2.4 3.2 7.7 5 78.5 602.9 0.0006 30.5
15 30 40 5 5 3 4 12 2.5 19.6 235.5 0.00024 11.9
16 30 40 5 2.5 4 5.3 21.3 2.5 19.6 418.7 0.00042 21.2
17 30 40 4 2.5 4.6 6.2 28.4 2 12.6 356.7 0.00036 18.1
18 30 40 4 2 5 6.7 33.3 2 12.6 418.7 0.00042 21.2
19 30 40 2.5 2.5 6 8 48 1.3 4.9 235.5 0.00024 11.9
20 30 40 2.5 2 6.7 8.9 59.3 1.3 4.9 290.7 0.00029 14.7
21 30 40 2 2 7.5 10 75 1 3.1 235.5 0.00024 11.9
22 30 40 2 1.5 8.6 11.4 98 1 3.1 307.6 0.00031 15.6
23 30 40 2 1 10 13.3 133.3 1 3.1 418.7 0.00042 21.2
24 30 40 1.5 1 12 16 192 0.8 1.8 339.1 0.00034 17.2
Selection Of Hole Diameter And Number Of Holes
MATERIAL REQUIRED FOR VACUUM TABLE UNIT
SI
.N
O.
ITEM
DESCRIPTION
MAKE/SUP
PLIER MATERIAL UNIT
UNIT
PRIC
E QTY
TATAL
COST
1 VACUUM TABLE SELF MS NO 4100 1 4100
2
VENTURI
VACUUM
GENERATOR SELF MS NO 850 1 850
3 RECIEVER TANK SELF MS NO 1650 1 1650
4 1/2" BALL VALVE
AUDCO
INDIA LTD MS NOS 888 3 2664
5 1/2" HOSE
ABDULKAD
AR & SONS
NYLON
INFORCED MTR 36.5 2 73
6 1/2" CLAMP NA MS NOS 14 4 56
7 1/2" NIPPLE NA MS NOS 14.5 10 145
8 1/2" STRAINER VITA MS NO 1420 1 1420
9 1/2" REGULATOR VITA NA NO 880 1 880
1
0
VACUUM
PRESSURE
GAUGE NA NO 550 2 1100
1
1 1/2" NRV VITA MS NO 1430 1 1430
GRAND TOTAL 14368
FABRICATION ITEM LIST
SI.
NO.
ITEM
DESCRIPTION
MATERIA
L COST
WELDING
& GAS
CUTTING
MACHINE
COST
QT
Y
TATAL
COST
1
VACUUM
TABLE 1500 600 2000 1 4100
2
VENTURI
BLOCK 200 0 500 1 700
3 NOZZLE 50 0 100 1 150
4
CONDENSATE
TANK 650 750 250 1 1650
TOTAL 6600
SI.NO. ITEM DESCRIPTION MAKE/SUPPLIER MATERIAL UNIT
UNIT
PRICE
QTY
TATAL
COST
1 VACUUM TABLE SELF MS NO 1 0
2
VENTURI VACUUM
GENERATOR
SELF MS NO 1 0
3 RECIEVER TANK SELF MS NO 1 0
4 1/2" BALL VALVE AUDCO INDIA LTD MS NOS 888 3 2664
5 1/2" HOSE
ABDULKADAR &
SONS
NYLON
INFORCED
MTR 36.5 2 73
6 1/2" CLAMP NA MS NOS 14 4 56
7 3/4" STRAINER VITA MS NO 1420 1 1420
8 3/4" NRV VITA MS NO 1430 1 1430
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED FOR VACUUM TABLE UNIT
MIN HRS
1 VACUUM TABLE MS 25 0.417 90 200 1 173.33
2 VENTURI BLOCK MS 1 0.00
3 NOZZLE MS 1 0.00
4
CONDENSATE
TANK
MS 1 0.00
173.33
TATAL COST
FABRICATION ITEM LIST
GRAND TOTAL
M/C'ING
TIME SI.NO.
ITEM
DESCRIPTION
MATERIAL
SETUP
COST
MACHINE
COST /HR
QTY
RESULTS AND RECMODATION
CONCLUTION


Trial carried out with vacuum work holder by fixing it on milling
machine table and came to following conclusions.

 Job holding and positioning time become very less. (i.e. 3 to
5 sec)

 By using vacuum work holder we clamp the 10mm plate
very easily. But it is difficult hold this plate with mechanical
fixture.

 Surface of plate (10 mm thickness) fully machined up to
3mm thickness depth without disturbing the initial set up of
plate. But it is not possible with mechanical fixture.

 Ceramic material job held with vacuum holder as a trial
and found ceramic piece held perfectly. It is not possible with
magnetic fixture and ceramic piece may got damage if we held
it with mechanical fixture.

Length Breath Area
Vacuum
pressur
e
(mm of
Hg)
Vacuum
pressure
(N/m2) Force
0.265 0.11 0.02915 400 53328.94737
1554.
539
0.265 0.23 0.06095 400 53328.94737
3250.
399
0.005 0.005 0.0000785 400 53328.94737
4.186
322
MAXIMUM FORCE THAT VACUUM TABLE CAN WITH STAND
RECOMMENDATIONS OF FUTURE WORK



Auto vacuum pressure controller unit to control pressure if pressure
drops

Computerized fluid dynamics analysis to increase performance of
vacuum work holder

Refine the vacuum table for more applications

Reference


- Prof. Dr.Omer Anlagan, “Mechanics of metal cutting”, 2005

- Haci Saglam, Suleyman Yaldiz *, Faruk Unsacar, “The effect of tool geometry
and cutting speed on main cutting force and tool tip temperature”

- S_eref Aykut a, Eyup Bagci b,*, Aykut Kentli c, Osman Yazıcıog˘lu a
“Experimental observation of tool wear, cutting forces and chip morphology in face
milling of cobalt based super-alloy with physical vapour deposition coated and
uncoated tool”

• M.S. Shaw, “Metal Cutting”

1.0

PROBLEM DEFINITION

NEED FOR WORKING DEVICES FOR FRAGILE AND OTHER ENGINEERING MATERIALS WHICH SAVES HOLDING & POSITIONING TIME AND PROVIDES ACCURACY

2.0 PROJECT OBJECTIVE

Design and Develop a work holding device for holding of fragile and other engineering materials.

Another prevalent assumption is that vacuum chucks are only suitable for small work pieces. Reinforcing this view. for example.  Ceramic is important material in Aerospace engineering. many of the vacuum chucks in use today do serve small application. this inertia includes the premise that secure and reliable work holding is possible only by mechanical means.  In the past. the belief that persist that vacuum chucks aren’t sturdy enough to withstand heavy machining operations. Despite evidence to the contrary. as well as by some common misconceptions. acceptance of vacuum chucks has been limited by persistence of traditional practices. But it is difficult to machine by using mechanical &magnetic type work holders  Holding of fragile & non ferrous material is difficult with help of normal work holders  All problems can be eliminated by vacuum type work holder .LITERATURE SURVEY  In the metalworking sphere.

Manufacturing and assembly. . Design calculation for the factors considered. Design of venturiblock. vacuum table and other accessories.0 METHODOLOGY Factors to be considered for machining.• • • • • 3. Testing and validation.

1 Factors to be considered for machining 3.1 FORCES IN MILLING:•TANGENTIAL (CUTTING) FORCES This acts in a direction tangential to the fixed work piece and represents the resistance to the rotation of the tool •LONGITUDINAL (THRUST-FEED) FORCES Longitudinal force acts in the direction parallel to the axis of the work and represents the resistance to the longitudinal feed of the work piece •RADIAL (PASSIVE) FORCES Radial forces acts in a radial direction from the center line of the workpiece .1.3.

3. FEED RATE :The feed rate is the axial advance of the tool along the work for each revolution of the work . CUTTING SPEED:Cutting speed refers to the relative surface speed between tool and work ii. DEPTH OF CUT :The depth of cut relates to the depth the tool cutting edges engages the workpiece iii.1.2 MACHINING PARAMETERS There are three important parameters in milling operation  Cutting speed  Depth of cut  Feed rate i.

cutting force is maximum among all forces while machining .Based on above graphs.

specific cutting energy ps is Ps = If AC =1 .2 Cutting Force Specific cutting energy: A efficiency parameter giving of an indication of the defined of the process . as the energy consumed per unit volume o f removed metal The rate of energy consumed during machining Pm is Pm=FC*V Energy consumed per unit volume of metal removed.DESIGN CALCULATION FOR THE FACTORS CONSIDERED 3. then PS =FC Where Pm F  c Z w AC Pm = Power consumed FC = Cutting force V = Cutting speed ZW = Metal removal rate Ac = Undeformed chip cross section area Ps = Specific cutting energy . independent cutting speed.

9 to 6.1 1.3 3.4 to 3.1 Material Aluminum alloy Cast irons Copper alloys High-temperature alloys Magnesium alloys Nickel alloys Refractory alloys Stainless steels Steels Titanium alloys Based on above tabular column refractory alloys has max.4 to 1.0 to 5.7 to 9.5 1. Specific cutting energy value of 9.2 2.6 W-s/mm3 So max cutting force is 9.6 4.6 to 5.3 3.8 3.6 3.0 to 4.4 to 0.6 N .3 to 8.APROXIMATE ENERGY EQUIREMENTS IN CUTTING OPERATION Specific energy W-s/mm3 0.5 0.8 to 9.

VACUUM PUMP 2.3. VENTURI VACUUM PUMP VENTURI VACUUM PUMP SELECTED FOR VACUUM TABLE BASED ON FOLLOWING REASONS & COMPRESSED AIR AVAILABLE WITH US .3 Design of venturiblock. vacuum table and other accessories  Max cutting force during machining is 9.6 N  For machining vacuum force of work of work holder should be more then cutting force VACUUM FORCE= VACUUM PRESSURE X AREA OF CONTACT OF VACUUM WITH JOB VACUUM PRESSURE CAN BE CREATED WITH FOLLOWING WAYS: 1.

In general the following are the advantages of using venturi vacuum generators: i. v. an electric vacuum pump is the only alternative. iii. ii.  If constant vacuum flow is required. vi. . vii. viii. Also. a vacuum pump may be more energy efficient then a venture. Fast cycling Temperatures Corrosive environments Noise levels Contamination Ease of mounting Maintenance Lower Cost When Is A Venturi Undesirable?  One of the basic requirement of a venturi vacuum generator is compressed air. venture may not be the most efficient device compared to vacuum pumps . iv. If compressed air is not available. if the application requires a large vacuum flow at high vacuum.

3 mm of Hg =80 mm of Hg Factor of safety taken as 5 So required vacuum pressure is 400 mm of Hg .0009 m2 Vacuum pressure =11111.6 N =10 N 10 N = vacuum pressure * 0.3.3.1 N/m2 = 83.1 VENTURI BLOCK DESIGN: (using Bernoulli’s theorem) VACUUM FORCE =VACUUM PRESSURE *AREA =VACUUM PRESSURE * AREA BASED ON JOB Take minimum area as 30*30=900 mm2 =0.0009 m2 Cutting force as per data =9.

6 N/m2 Pressure P1 =-400mm of hg =-53328.8 D1 2 2 m/s p1 V p V p  1  gz1  2  2  gz 2  12  2  2  2 p12  0 .5 m/s V2  4Q D2 2 D2=.0149m3/s Pressure P1 =80 psi =551428.004 m 1 Q= D  1  2  D   1 4 D 2 2 4 2( p1  p2 )  VACUUM FORCE =VACUUM PRESSURE *AREA =400 mm of hg * AREA BASED ON JOB .AVAILABLE DATA: Discharge Q=30 CFM =.9N/m2 Diameter D1= 9mm =.009m Calculation: V1  4Q  234 . gz1  gz 2 V2 = 1124.

OF HOLES = 288 WALL THICKNESS = 16mm TOP & BOTTOM PLATE THIK = 10 mm Vacuum table rough diagram .3.3.5 mm NO.2 Design Of Vacuum table VACUUM TABLE HEIGHT= 300 mm VACUUM TABLE WIDTH = 300 mm VACUUM TABLE DEPTH = 70 mm HOLE DIAMETER = 10 mm GAP BETWEEN TWO HOLES (Pitch) = 15mm GAP BETWEEN HOLES & Edges x axis) = 25 mm GAP BETWEEN HOLES & Edges y axis) = 22.

00034 11.00027 0.6 5 6 6.9 452.9 8.4 56.6 12.5 11.4 3 4 4.6 15.6 10 12 2 2.4 13.5 2 2 1.00024 0.5 100 144 5.3 1.6 19.00045 0.0003 Force (N) 15.5 2.7 2.1 21.6 314 267.5 8. 1 X 30 Y 30 Hole dia 10 Gap 5 No.8 235.3 7.6 19.9 14.4 33.5 2.5 5 2.1 3.9 Area 78.8 3.00025 0.7 3.9 15.5 307.3 1 1 1 0.5 8.5 2 2 1.1 176.6 418.00029 22.6 10 12 10 11.5 418.1 3.3 1.1 3.5 2 2.3 192 1 1 1 0.7 0.5 2.5 10 10 5 5 4 4 2.5 78.9 15.6 12.7 8 8.3 418.00023 0.6 5 6 6.00018 0.6 21.6 12.6 4.7 418.00036 0.7 7.00031 0.7 339.5 8.5 2 2 1.5 2.7 12 21.5 2 2 2 1.00042 0.2 4 5.9 4.00024 0.5 2.9 11 8.1 3.00024 0.5 5 2.9 5.2 30.00018 0.2 .3 28.9 11.7 235.3 48 59.4 3 4 4.8 5 5 2.7 314 254.2 18. N.00018 0.5 2 1.4 3 4 4.1 1.3 6.9 21.5 2 2.6 4.9 235.3 25 36 44.00042 0.2 17.5 2.6 230.5 2 2.6 5 6 6.7 602.00042 0.2 11.2 6.6 314 176.1 0.8 78.3 16 75 98 133.9 4.5 1 1 7.00042 0.0006 0. of holes Xh 2 Yh 2 Total no.9 13.00031 0.6 12.7 21 22 23 24 30 30 30 30 40 40 40 40 2 2 2 1.5 19.8 9 16 21.6 218.3 73.6 10 12 2.5 2.00022 0.7 356. of holes 4 Radiu s 5 Total area(m m2) 314 Total area(m2 ) 0.00031 0.Selection Of Hole Diameter And Number Of Holes Piece dimensions S.9 3.5 1 1 5 2.7 7.5 290.5 19.2 176.3 5 2.3 78.9 8.9 21.5 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 10 5 5 4 4 2.00031 0.1 1.9 12.7 15.

MATERIAL REQUIRED FOR VACUUM TABLE UNIT SI .5 1420 880 1 1 3 2 4 10 1 1 850 1650 2664 73 56 145 1420 880 NA VITA MS NO NO 550 1430 2 1 1100 1430 14368 GRAND TOTAL .N O. 1 ITEM DESCRIPTION VACUUM TABLE VENTURI VACUUM GENERATOR RECIEVER TANK 1/2" BALL VALVE 1/2" HOSE 1/2" CLAMP 1/2" NIPPLE 1/2" STRAINER 1/2" REGULATOR VACUUM PRESSURE GAUGE 1/2" NRV MAKE/SUP PLIER SELF MATERIAL MS UNIT NO UNIT PRIC E 4100 QTY 1 TATAL COST 4100 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 SELF SELF AUDCO INDIA LTD ABDULKAD AR & SONS NA NA VITA VITA MS MS MS NYLON INFORCED MS MS MS NA NO NO NOS MTR NOS NOS NO NO 850 1650 888 36.5 14 14.

ITEM DESCRIPTION VACUUM TABLE VENTURI BLOCK NOZZLE CONDENSATE TANK MATERIA L COST WELDING & GAS CUTTING MACHINE COST QT Y TATAL COST 1 2 3 4 1500 200 50 650 600 0 0 750 2000 500 100 250 TOTAL 1 1 1 1 4100 700 150 1650 6600 .FABRICATION ITEM LIST SI. NO.

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ITEM DESCRIPTION MAKE/SUPPLIER MATERIAL UNIT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 VACUUM TABLE VENTURI VACUUM GENERATOR RECIEVER TANK 1/2" BALL VALVE 1/2" HOSE 1/2" CLAMP 3/4" STRAINER 3/4" NRV SELF SELF SELF AUDCO INDIA LTD MS MS MS MS NO NO NO NOS 888 36.EQUIPMENT REQUIRED FOR VACUUM TABLE UNIT SI.NO.5 14 1420 1430 UNIT TATAL QTY PRICE COST 1 1 1 3 2 4 1 1 0 0 0 2664 73 56 1420 1430 ABDULKADAR & NYLON MTR SONS INFORCED NA VITA VITA MS MS MS NOS NO NO .

1 2 3 4 ITEM MATERIAL DESCRIPTION VACUUM TABLE VENTURI BLOCK NOZZLE CONDENSATE TANK MS MS MS MS M/C'ING TIME MIN HRS 25 0.33 0.FABRICATION ITEM LIST SI.33 .00 GRAND TOTAL 173.00 0.00 0.417 SETUP COST 90 MACHINE COST /HR 200 QTY 1 1 1 1 TATAL COST 173.NO.

RESULTS AND RECMODATION .

.

.

e.  Surface of plate (10 mm thickness) fully machined up to 3mm thickness depth without disturbing the initial set up of plate.  Job holding and positioning time become very less. But it is not possible with mechanical fixture.CONCLUTION Trial carried out with vacuum work holder by fixing it on milling machine table and came to following conclusions. 3 to 5 sec)  By using vacuum work holder we clamp the 10mm plate very easily. But it is difficult hold this plate with mechanical fixture.  Ceramic material job held with vacuum holder as a trial and found ceramic piece held perfectly. (i. . It is not possible with magnetic fixture and ceramic piece may got damage if we held it with mechanical fixture.

399 4.23 0.94737 0.11 0.265 0.94737 .265 0.06095 400 53328.MAXIMUM FORCE THAT VACUUM TABLE CAN WITH STAND Length Breath Area Vacuum pressur e (mm of Hg) Vacuum pressure (N/m2) Force 1554.0000785 400 53328. 539 3250.005 0.186 322 0.94737 0.005 0.02915 400 53328.

RECOMMENDATIONS OF FUTURE WORK Auto vacuum pressure controller unit to control pressure if pressure drops Computerized fluid dynamics analysis to increase performance of vacuum work holder Refine the vacuum table for more applications .

Suleyman Yaldiz *. “Mechanics of metal cutting”. Eyup Bagci b. “The effect of tool geometry and cutting speed on main cutting force and tool tip temperature”  S_eref Aykut a. “Metal Cutting” . Faruk Unsacar. cutting forces and chip morphology in face milling of cobalt based super-alloy with physical vapour deposition coated and uncoated tool” • M.Omer Anlagan.S.Reference  Prof. Dr. Osman Yazıcıog˘lu a “Experimental observation of tool wear. Aykut Kentli c. 2005  Haci Saglam.*. Shaw.

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