Conflict and Negotiation

Presented by Ahmad Abrar Maula Quraishi

Definition of Conflict
A process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about.

The Traditional View of Conflict

The belief that all conflict is harmful and must be avoided.

The Human Relations View of Conflict

The belief that conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group.

The Interactionist View of Conflict
The belief that conflict is not only a positive force in a group but that it is also an absolute necessity for a group to perform effectively.

Functional Conflict
Conflict that supports the goals of the group and improves its performance.

Dysfunctional Conflict
Conflict that hinders group performance.

Task Conflict
Conflict over content and goals of the work.

Relationship Conflict
Conflict based on interpersonal relationship.

The Conflict Process
A process that has five stages:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Potential opposition or incompatibility. Cognition and personalization. Intentions. Behavior. Outcomes.

Exhibit of the Conflict Process
Stage I Potential Opposition or Incompatibility Stage II Cognition and Personalization Stage III Intentions Stage IV Behavior Stage V Outcomes

Antecedent Conditions • Communication • Structure • Personal Variables

Perceived Conflict

Felt Conflict

Conflict-handling Intentions • Competing • Collaborating • Compromising • Avoiding • Accommodating

Overt Conflict • Party’s Behavior • Other’s Reaction

Increased Group Performance

Decreased Group Performance

Negotiation (Bargaining)
A process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree on the exchange rate for them.

Bargaining Strategies

Distributive Bargaining Negotiation that seeks to divide up a fixed amount of resources; a win/lose situation. Fixed Pie The belief that there is only a set amount of goods or services to be divided up between the parties.

Integrative Bargaining Negotiation that seeks one or more settlements that can create a win/win solution.

Distributive Versus Integrative Bargaining
Bargaining Characteristics Goal Distributive Bargaining Get as much of the pie as possible Integrative Bargaining Expand the pie so that both parties are satisfied

Motivation
Focus Interests Information sharing Duration of relationship

Win/Lose
Positions (“ I can’t go beyond this point on this issue. Opposed Low Short term

Win/win
Interests (“ Can you explain why This issue is so important to you?”) Congruent High Long term

The Negotiation Process
Preparation and planning

Definition and ground rules

Classification and justification

Bargaining and problem solving

Closure and implementation

Individual Differences in Negotiation Effectiveness

Personality traits in negotiation.

Moods/Emotions in negotiation. Gender differences in negotiations.

Third-Party Negotiations

Mediator
Arbitrator Conciliator Consultant

What is Stress?

Presented by Ahsan Zia

Definition
A dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, a demand, or a resource

related to what the individual desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important.

Demands
Responsibilities, Pressures, Obligations, and even uncertainties that individuals face in the workplace.

Resources
Things within an individual’s control that can be used to resolve demands.

The Emergence of Stress
There is considerable evidence that most managers report feeling work-related stress, and the recent environment is making things worse.

Techno stress
Exploding technology has created the following problems for today’s employees at all levels:
   

Loss of privacy Information inundation Erosion of face-to-face contact Continually having to learn new skills Being passed over for promotion because of their lack of knowledge

Challenge Stressors
Stressors associated with

Work load, Pressure to complete tasks, and time urgency.

Hindrance Stressors
Stressors that keep you from reaching your goals (red tape, office politics, confusion over job responsibilities).

The Causes of Stress

Presented by Saadia Sadaf

Potential Sources

Environmental factors

Organizational factors
Personal factors

Environmental Factors

Economic uncertainty

Political uncertainty
Technological change

Organizational Factors

Task demands

Role demands
Interpersonal demands

Personal Factors

Family problems

Economic problems Personality

Individual Differences

Perception Job experience Social support Belief in locus of control

Self-efficacy
Hostility

The Effects of Stress

Presented by Aneesa Abbas

Consequences of Stress Management

Physiological symptoms Psychological symptoms

Behavioral symptoms

Physiological Symptoms
According to research stress could create
  


Changes in metabolism Increase heart and breathing rates Increase blood pressure Bring on headaches Induce heart attacks

Psychological Symptoms
Stress can cause dissatisfaction and other psychological states for instance
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Tension Anxiety Irritability Boredom Procrastination

Behavioral Symptoms
Behavior-related stress symptoms include changes in
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Productivity Absence Turnover Eating habits Increased smoking or consumption of alcohol Rapid speech Fidgeting Sleep disorders

Coping Strategies for Stress
Presented by Shakeel Ahmad

Managing Stress
Individual approaches Organizational approaches

Individual Approaches
Individual strategies that have proven effective include

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Implementing time-management techniques Increasing physical exercise Relaxation training Expanding the social support network

Time-Management Principles

Making daily lists of activities

Prioritizing activities
Scheduling activities Knowing your daily cycle

Physical Exercises
Physicians have recommended noncompetitive physical exercise, such as
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Aerobics Walking Jogging Swimming Riding a bicycle

Relaxation Techniques

Mediation

Reach a state of deep relaxation
Detachment from body sensations

Social Support Network

Having family Having friends

Having work colleagues

Organizational Approaches
Strategies that management might want to consider include
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 


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Improved personnel selection and job placement. Training. Use of realistic goal setting. Redesigning of jobs. Increased employee involvement. Improved organizational communication. Offering employee sabbaticals. Establishment of corporate wellness programs.

Wellness Programs
Organizationally supported programs that focus on the employee’s total physical and mental condition.

Summary

The evidence indicates that stress can be either a positive or a negative influence on employee performance.
Low to moderate amounts of stress enable to perform jobs better. High level of stress causes the performance to decline.

This is the end of the Presentation

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