Abraham Maslow

Motivation theory

Abraham (Harold) Maslow (April 1, 1908 – June 8, 1970) was an American psychologist. He is mostly noted today for his proposal of a hierarchy of human needs and is considered the father of humanistic psychology.

Maslow Hierarchy of needs
Humans have a number of needs that are instinctoid, innate.  “Conative needs”  “Cognitive needs"  “Aesthetic needs."  "Neurotic needs" (these are included in Maslow's theory but do not exist within the hierarchy.)

Pyramid of needs.-

Pyramid levels
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The base: physiological needs(including the biological requirements for food, water, air, and sleep). Second level: the need for safety and security. (structure, order, security, and predictability). Third level: the need for love and belonging (friends and companions, a supportive family, identification with a group, and an intimate relationship). The fourth level: the esteem needs. This group of needs requires both recognition from other people (feelings of prestige, acceptance) and status, and selfesteem (adequacy, competence, and confidence). Finally, self-actualization sits at the apex of the original pyramid.

Implications for management
Important implications for management:
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Physiological needs: provide lunch breaks, rest breaks, and wages that are sufficient to purchase the essentials of life. Safety needs: provide a safe working environment, retirement benefits, and job security Social needs: create a sense of community via team-based projects and social events Esteem needs: recognize achievements to make employees feel appreciated and valued. Offer job titles that convey the importance of the position. Self actualization: provide the employee the challenge and opportunity to reach their full career potential. Maslow's model has great potential appeal in the business world. The message is clear - if management can find out which level each employee has reached, then they can decide on suitable rewards.

Limitations of Maslow's Model
There are several problems with the Maslow model when real life working practice is considered:
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Individual behaviour seems to respond to several needs not just one The same need may cause quite different behaviour in different individuals There is a problem in deciding when a level has actually been "satisfied" The model ignores the often-observed behaviour of individuals who tolerate low-pay for the promise of future benefits There is little empirical evidence to support the model.


Individuals could not survive without first taking care of their fundamental needs, the tech bust proved no matter how much initial funding a business has, it can survive only for a finite period without meeting its lower-level needs of cash and profit.

Abraham H. Maslow 1908-1970

Historical figures that clearly met the standard of selfactualization for Maslow

Videoshttp://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=ljYFE5VyVKk  http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=WBAd99v9mn4&NR=1