From Philip Bishop’s Adventures in the Human Spirit (third edition)

What is the building’s function?
Sacred – the earliest great buildings were temples to honor gods. Secular – a palace houses a royal family, but it also has a public function. Private – or domestic functions only to serve the individual who is responsible for construction. Function may include any combination of sacred, secular, public, or private.

Roman Baths, England

From which materials is the building constructed?
Ancient Greeks used wood for houses and stone for temples, thus the temples lasted. Romans used concrete (made from cement, sand, stone, and water), but decorated this plain material with stone or paintings to make it look Greek. Modern builders have improved concrete with steel reinforcement.

What is the building’s design?
Design is similar to composition in painting, yet more essential. A poorly designed building may collapse. Modern building techniques allow for greater flexibility in design.

What is the relation between exterior and interior of the building?
Exteriors present the building to the world, interiors serve its function. Exterior and interior may reflect a common design, or they may differ – causing tension.

Taliesen West Frank Lloyd Wright

Aerospace Museum, California

Dulles Airport, D.C. 1958

How does the building employ the other arts?
Painting and sculpture are often used as decoration. Relief sculpture or stained glass and painting are often used in sacred buildings to attract and educate the people. Performing arts may be part of the design of a theater or part of a church service.

Early 20 Century Architecture

New Architecture
New materials: structural steel and ferroconcrete Emphasized visual abstraction

Bauhaus & International Style
Founded in 1919 by Walter Gropius Fuses technology with principles of functional design International Style = steel, ferroconcrete, and sheet glass in a geometrical form

Create a new form of building for the future, Combined architecture and sculpture and painting A return to the crafts as the foundation of all artistic activity Designs for objects and spaces that were to form part of a more humane future society

Walter Gropius, Bauhaus, Dessau, 1925-26

Walter Gropius, Bauhaus, Dessau, Germany, 1925-26.

Le Corbusier, Villa Savoye, Poissy, France, 1928-1929.

Le Corbusier, Villa Savoye (Interior)

Le Corbusier, Villa Savoye (Interior)

Le Corbusier, Villa Savoye (Rooftop)

Le Corbusier, Unite d’Habitation apartment, Marseilles, France, 1946-1952.

Frank Lloyd Wright: Prairie School
Theoretical connection to nature Forms have a regional quality connected to architecture of the US Midwest “Form follows function” Close relationship of the building to the landscape

Frank Lloyd Wright, Robie House, 1909. Chicago, Illinois.

Frank Lloyd Wright, Robie House, 1909. Chicago, Illinois.

Frank Lloyd Wright, Robie House (interior)

Frank Lloyd Wright, Robie House (interior)

Frank Lloyd Wright, Fallingwater (Kaufman House), 1936-39. Bear Run, Pennsylvania.

Frank Lloyd Wright, Fallingwater (interior)

Architecture as sculpture
Sculptural qualities that are possible with new materials like ferroconcrete expand the role of the architect. A building can become almost pure sculpture. Curves, cylinders, and undulating lines excite the creative potential of the architect.

Juxtaposition of forms appear chaotic Revolves around a central axis, the atrium Combines classical, rectangular spaces with others of unusual proportions and forms

Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, 1997.

Frank Lloyd Wright Guggenheim, New York

Jorn Utzon Opera House, Sydney

Nationale-Nederlanden Building,Prague Frank Gehry