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Family Influences on Child Health Promotion

Mosby items and derived items © 2009, 2005 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.

. 2005 by Mosby. 2 . Inc.Family      Is whatever a person considers it to be Consanguineous: blood relationship Affinal: marital relationship Family of origin: family unit born into Household is used frequently to accommodate an increasing variety of family styles Mosby items and derived items © 2009. an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.

2005 by Mosby. 3 .. Inc.Family Systems Theory  General systems theory:  The family is a system that continually interacts with its members and the environment  Emphasis on interaction  Problems do not lie in any one member but in the type of interactions used by the family  Important factors include adaptability and boundaries  Family system functions within a larger system composed of the extended family. the subculture. the culture. and society Mosby items and derived items © 2009. an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.

4 . Inc. an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 2005 by Mosby.Family Stress Theory    Families encounter stressors.. a crisis ensues Adaptation requires a change in family structure and/or interaction Mosby items and derived items © 2009. both predictable and unpredictable With too many stressors for family to cope adequately.

.Developmental Theory   Addresses family change over time Duvall’s family life-cycle stages (Box 3-1)   Family is a semiclosed system that interacts with larger social system Age of oldest child marks stage transitions Mosby items and derived items © 2009. 2005 by Mosby. 5 . an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Inc.

2005 by Mosby. Inc. 6 Family Structure .      Traditional nuclear – married couple and their biologic children Nuclear – Two parents and their children Blended – at least one step parent/sibling or half-sibling Extended – at least one parent. one or more children. an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. and one or more members other than parent or sibling Single-parent Binuclear – continue parenting role while terminating the spousal unit Mosby items and derived items © 2009..

. shared homemaking and childrearing responsibilities Gay/Lesbian – legal or common-law tie between two persons of the same sex who have children Mosby items and derived items © 2009.Family Structure (Continued)    Polygamous – conjugal unit extended by addition of spouses (not legally sanctioned in the United States) Communal – collective security. 7 . Inc. an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 2005 by Mosby.

Family Roles and Relationships    Parental roles Role learning through socialization Family size and configuration affect parenting  Small families emphasize the individual. larger families emphasize the group   Sibling interactions Birth position (See Box 3-4) Mosby items and derived items © 2009. 8 .. an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Inc. 2005 by Mosby.

FIG. 3-4 Fraternal twins. an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 9 . Mosby items and derived items © 2009.. 3-3 Older school-age children often enjoy taking responsibility for the care of a younger sibling. 2005 by Mosby.Sibling Interactions FIG. Inc.

2005 by Mosby. Inc..Parenting  Motivation  Adults expected to become parents and to be gratified by the experience Generational continuity  Preparation   Transition to parenthood  Drastic life changes with birth of first child Mosby items and derived items © 2009. 10 . an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.

11 . 2005 by Mosby. an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Inc.Factors Affecting Transition to Parenthood     Parental age Father’s involvement Parenting education Support systems Mosby items and derived items © 2009..

an affiliate of Elsevier Inc..Father’s Involvement FIG. Mosby items and derived items © 2009. 12 . 3-7 Learning new roles together as a mother and father can enhance parenting relationships. Inc. 2005 by Mosby. 3-5 Fathers who assume care of their children may feel more comfortable and successful in their parenting role. FIG.

an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 2005 by Mosby.Limit Setting    Establishing rules for behavior Positive and necessary Serves useful functions.. helping children:      Test limits of control Achieve in appropriate areas and levels Channel undesirable feelings constructively Protect selves from danger Learn socially acceptable behavior Mosby items and derived items © 2009. 13 . Inc.

logical. 14 . child gets “accustomed” to spanking Mosby items and derived items © 2009. Inc. an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. may physically harm child. 2005 by Mosby. unrelated   Time-out Corporal punishment  Causes dramatic decrease in the behavior but teaches child that violence is acceptable.Discipline     Minimizing misbehavior Reasoning Behavior modification (positive and negative reinforcement) Strategy of consequences  Natural..

Inc. 2005 by Mosby. 3-8 Time-out is an excellent disciplinary strategy for young children. 15 ..Using Time-Out FIG. an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Mosby items and derived items © 2009.

2005 by Mosby. 16 . Inc. an affiliate of Elsevier Inc..Special Parenting Situations  The adopted child:    Issues of origin Cross-racial and international adoptions Adolescence Mosby items and derived items © 2009.

an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Inc.Adoptive Sisters FIG. 2005 by Mosby. Mosby items and derived items © 2009. 3-9 An older sister lovingly embraces her adopted sister. 17 ..

2005 by Mosby. an affiliate of Elsevier Inc..and sex-related responses Telling the children Custody and parenting partnerships Mosby items and derived items © 2009. 18 . Inc.Parenting and Divorce     Impact on children Age.

19 . an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 2005 by Mosby. Inc..Single Parenting   Single fathers Reconstituted families  Cooperative parenting relationships is key!    Parenting in dual-earner families Working mothers Foster parenting Mosby items and derived items © 2009.

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