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BASIC LAUNDRY TECHNIQUES

Presented by: MR. HERMAN H. ORILLA
Laundry Consultant

CHEMISTRY OF CLEANING
THE PROCESS OF REMOVING THE MAXIMUM AMOUNT OF SOIL FROM AN ARTICLE IN THE MOST EFFICIENT WAY, WITH THE MAXIMUM RETENTION OF ITS ORIGINAL STATE.

FIBERS
ANIMAL VEGETABLE SYNTHETIC

WOOL, SILK

COTTON, FLAX

ANY MAN-MADE FIBER

WOVEN.FABRIC ANY ONE FIBER OR A COMBINATION OF FIBERS. KNITTED. OR FELTED .

Fabric Types / Characteristics There are three types of basic fabrics. There is cotton. polyester and cotton/polyester blend  COTTON  is a natural fiber  is water loving (Hydrophilic)  is absorbent  will shrink at high temperature  will wrinkle  is less durable .

 POLYSTER  is man-made from ethylene glycol and terephthalic acid  is water loving (Hydrophilic)  is not absorbent  is oil loving (Oleophilic)  is durable  can be treated to reduce wrinkling .

80-20)  is permanent press  wrinkle resistant  reduce chance of shrinkage . 65-35. COTTON / POLYSTER BLENDS  utilize strengths of both fabrics  are durable  blend ratios polyester to cotton (50/50.

DUST. GUMS. AND MATTER GENERALY FOUND IN FOOD AND DRINK DISSOLVED OR SOLUBLE IN WATER EARTH. SYRUPS. FATTY ACIDS WHICH ARE MAINLY BODY OIL. PIGMENTS (SOLID COLORING MATTER) INSOLUBLE OR NOT DISSOLVED IN EITHER WATER OR SOLVENT. GREASE. ALTHOUGH THEY ARE REMOVED. LINT. MINERAL OR ANIMAL OILS DISSOLVED OR SOLUBLE IN SOLVENT SOME SUGARS.SOILS OILS. CARBONS. HAIR. STARCHES. TARS. FLAVORING AGENTS. ASHES. SKIN FLAKES. COSMETICS. WAX. VEGETABLE. AS PARTICLES FROM CLOTHING INTO THE SOLVENT .

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Inorganic substance (salts.) .Organic substance (starch. etc….TYPE OF SOILS  WATER SOLUBLE SOILS . sugar. etc….) . blood.

Animal and vegetable oils and fats . INSOLUBLE SOILS / INERT SOILS . chalk.Solid particles (sand. and dust) .Mineral oils and grease .

food.Perspiration.Oil and grease .  SOLVENT SOLUBLE SOILS . grease based soils  ACID SOLUBLE SOILS .Iron. etc…. ALKALI SOLUBLE SOILS . minerals (hardness).

BASIC CLEANING REQUIREMENTS  TIME Refer to linen contact time with chemical solutions. rinse and flush steps. . and total wash formula (including total number of steps required in the wash formula).

. chemical and used and energy saving requirements. linen.BASIC CLEANING REQUIREMENTS  TEMPERATURE Refers to optimum temperature range for performance in relation to the type of soil.

BASIC CLEANING REQUIREMENTS  TEMPERATURE TYPE TEMPERATURE OPERATION Suds / Bleaching Medium / Heavy Light Soil 140 160 80 – 160 0F – 120 0F – 110 0F Flush / Rinse The chemical reaction which is required for soil removal is accelerated by higher temperature. .

Degree of mechanical action is directly related to proper loading of the wash wheel and use of proper water level.BASIC CLEANING REQUIREMENTS  MECHANICAL ACTION The dropping or pounding action of the linen within the wash wheel is referred to as mechanical action. .

BASIC CLEANING REQUIREMENTS  CHEMICAL ACTION This is the interaction of soils and fabrics with various types and concentrations of chemicals used in the wash wheel. .

loading procedures.BASIC CLEANING REQUIREMENTS  PROCEDURE This is the proper application of the above four factors and proper linen handling procedures (including sorting. etc…. .).

BASIC LAUNDRY OPERATION WASHING CYCLES  FLUSH  BREAK  MAIN WASH / SUDS  CARRY OVER SUDS / INTERMEDIATE RINSE  BLEACH  RINSE  SOUR / SOFT  EXTRACT .

To remove debris and loose soils .To lower pH or alkalinity prior to bleaching .To lower the temperature from high to low .To raise wash temperature from low to high .Is in rising prior to the bleach / suds operation .BASIC LAUNDRY OPERATION  FLUSH .

BASIC LAUNDRY OPERATION  BREAK . If properly conducted. this operation can remove as much as 60% of the soil present. .Is a first supply operation .The purpose of the break operation is to loosen the soil from the fabric so that it can be suspended and removed.

.Is a first supply operation .Lower soil content of the washwheel.Lengthen the time of contact between alkali and detergent at higher temperature .Is done between the break and bleach operation. .BASIC LAUNDRY OPERATION  SUDS .

pH at bleach operation should be 10. but rather it is to enhance a good one.BASIC LAUNDRY OPERATION  BLEACH . .2 – 10. Bleach is not used to “cover up” a poor washing operation. Simply stated. and bleach for stain removal.8 .The function of bleaching is to oxidize the traces of soil or coloring matter that remain after washing. we wash clothes clean.

. .Temperature should gradually decline to prevent thermal shock on the fabric.Sufficient number of rinsing to remove loosened soil and reduce residual alkalinity prior to souring.Is the term use after the bleach operation .BASIC LAUNDRY OPERATION  RINSING .

BASIC LAUNDRY OPERATION  SOURING .Is conducted as the last operation in a wash formula in order to neutralize any bicarbonate alkalinity naturally present in the tap water and minor residual alkalinity present due to the addition of washroom supplies.5 – 6.Final step in the laundering process to reduce the end pH to 5. .5 on the linen. .

5 .0 5.0 5.5 – 6.0 – 6.5 – 6.BASIC LAUNDRY OPERATION  SOURING RECOMMENDED SOURING RANGE pH Wearing Apparel Flat Work Rough Dry 5.

Function as a moisture – lowering steps .BASIC LAUNDRY OPERATION  EXTRACTION .Time of extraction depends on the type of linen. . load and revolution speed of washer / extractor.

pH SCALE .

TROUBLESHOOTING LIST OF COMMON PROBLEMS  POOR SOIL REMOVAL Poor soil removal refers to items which are simply not coming clean. this could be the result of undissolved solids. odor. . or instant soil redeposition opposed to a gradual build up.

. Ask why then have been skipping them. Verify and train employees on proper product usage. This may lead to another concern. Check to make certain scoops/cups are in good condition and labeled properly. Explain the need for the operation(s) being skipped. POOR SOIL REMOVAL CAUSE Incorrect Formula being used SOLUTION Verify and train employees on proper formula use. like production time. Make certain product usage guide is correct and in place. Improper product usage Skipping Formula Operation(s) Train the employees to follow the formulas in their entirety.

. Overloading the wheelReduce load size. Make certain product usage guide is correct and in place. Check to make certain scoops/cups are in good condition and labeled properly. POOR SOIL REMOVAL CAUSE Improper Presorting SOLUTION Make sure the proper sorting procedures are being followed and the proper formula(s) is being used. Overloading the wheelReduce load size. Improper product usage Verify and train employees on proper product usage. Train employees o proper loading. Train employees o proper loading.

Water hardness higher than standards Break temperature to low . POOR SOIL REMOVAL CAUSE Washer controls malfunctioning SOLUTION Check the levels. Make sure the preventive maintenance is being contacted regularly. determine if it is functioning properly or if it needs regeneration. if necessary. Verify. If a water softener is used. If a water softener is not being used. If temperature is not reaching the desired level adjust the temperature controls. temperature controls and dump valve(s). collect or solicit the maintenance department assistance to fix the problems. a slight increase in detergent usage may be necessary.

 GRAYING OR REDEPOSITION CAUSE Insufficient Detergent Usage SOLUTION Use product amount recommended for the heaviest classification in the wheel. Improper washing and/or rinsing temperatures Inadequate rinsing. Dropping the temperature too quickly can cause redeposition. Set water temperatures at recommended levels for that classification. Use the recommended number of rinses with the proper water levels and time. or the rinse operation times are too short .

a slight increase in the detergent usage may be necessary. GRAYING OR REDEPOSITION CAUSE Improper sorting. mixing fabrics with different soil levels in a single load. Water hardness higher than standard SOLUTION Pre-sort items to ensure fabrics wit similar soil levels are included in each load. If no softener is used. . If a water softener is being used make sure it is working properly or check to see if it needs regenerating.

Machine Wash Instruction Bleaching Instructions Water Temperature Setting Dryer Instructions Special Care Dryer heat Settings .

Special Drying Instructions Special Care Ironing .

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