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Eye & Vision

The eye has been called the most complex organ in our

It's amazing that something so small can have so many

working parts.

But when you consider how difficult the task of providing

vision really is, perhaps it's no wonder after all.
The eye is like a camera. Light comes in through the
cornea, a clear cover that is like the glass of a camera's

The amount of light coming in is controlled by the pupil, an

opening that opens and closes a little like a camera

The light focuses on the retina, a series of light-sensitive

cells lining the back of the eye.

The retina acts like camera film, reacting to the incoming

light and sending a record of it via the optic nerve to the
Accessory Structures of the Eye:

The accessory structures of the eye are the

the lacrimal (tearing) apparatus and
extrinsic eye muscle.
An eyelid is a thin fold of
skin that covers and protects
an eye. With the exception of
the prepuce and the labia
minora, it has the thinnest
skin of the whole body. The
levator palpebrae superioris
muscle retracts the eyelid to
"open" the eye. This can be
either voluntarily or
involuntarily. The human
eyelid features a row of
eyelashes which serve to
heighten the protection of
the eye from dust and
foreign debris.
The adult eyeball measures about 2.5 cm (1 in) in

Of its total surface area, only the anterior one sixth is

exposed; the remainder is recessed and protected by
the orbit.

Anatomically the wall of the eyeball consists of three


fibrous tunic
vascular tunic
The pupil is basically a circular hole in the middle of the iris,
which regulates the amount of light that passes through into the retina.
In the dark, as the amount of natural light diminishes, the pupil will expand
- allowing as much of the little light that there is to pass through.

In the day, when everything is brighter,

the pupil will constrict to limit the amount that passes through.

Surplus: Better Focal Depth (why am I without glasses now ?)

Bright Light Dim Light

Direction of
Image Formation:

a) The refraction or bending of light by lens and


c) Accommodation, the change in shape of the


e) Constriction or narrowing of the pupil

Cross­section of eye Cross section of retina

Ganglion axons
Ganglion cell layer
Bipolar cell layer

Receptor layer
Two types of light­sensitive receptors

   less sensitive
   operate in high light
   color vision

   highly sensitive
   operate at night
   gray­scale vision cone