The System of Collective Security between the Two World Wars

The League of Nations
 The

concept of establishing the League of Nations was mentioned in the Fourteen points of the US President Wilson  The Covenant of the League was included in the Peace Settlements after the war and the League began to function in January 1920

 The

Covenant had 26 articles. Members undertook to preserve peace and refrain from aggression  Disputes between members had to be submitted to the League for arbitration  Any state violated the covenants was liable to economic or military sanction  All resolutions had to be passed by a unanimous vote

The Organization
 The

Assembly was the annual conference of League member states  The Council's main function was to settle international disputes.  The Secretariat carried out the day-to-day work of the League, under the direction of the Secretary-General

 Committees,

commissions, and conferences received mandates from the League. Examples include the Opium Advisory Committee, the European Union Commission, the Office of the High Commissioner in Danzig and the Permanent Mandates Commission  The World Court was the former Hague Court, was composed of 15 judges, passed judgement international disputes

The work of the League in the 1920’s

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

The League achieved success in settling disputes between its member states in the 1920’s: Finland and Sweden disputes over the Aaland Islands Disputes between Poland and Germany over Upper Silesia Yugoslavia invaded Albania Italy attacked Corfu Island of Greece in 1923 Greece attacked Bulgaria in 1925

The League’s Work in nonterritorial fields

2. 3. 4.

The League achieved greater success in fields other than territorial: Loans were given to some countries such as Austria and Greece The league also helped refugees to return home The Epidemic Commission had help to duce plots

4. The international labour Organization worked hard to promote labour’s welfare 5. The international Court of Justice had also succeeded in settling some disputes 6. The League also work hard to promote international cooperation

The League’s failure in the 1930’s
Weaknesses of the League 1. It required a unanimous vote of all members to pass a resolution in both Assembly and the Council. It was almost impossible 2. No army to enforce the resolution 3. As the Covenant was included in all peace treaties, the League, for the defeated nations, was an organization of enforcing the treaties, not an organization for upholding justice

4. The International Court of Justice required both parties of disputes to submit an issue for the court 5. The United States never join the League. Germany, Italy and Japan withdrew. 6. France and Britain were seriously weakened by the war 7. Russia joined the League in 1934 but she did not act actively.

The Washington Conference 1921-1922
  3.

4.

The United States invited the other 8 countries to attend the Conference There were several treaties signed : The four–powers Pact was signed by the US, Britain, Japan and France to maintain the status quo and peace in the Pacific region The Five–Power Pact was signed by the above 4 countries and also Italy. It fixed the ratio for total tonnage of capital ships. The ratio was 5:5:3:1.75:1.75

3. The Nine Power Pact was signed to respect the “Open Door” of China 4. Other treaties: Included Japan promised to return Shantung to China and the powers agreed to consider to return tariff autonomy to China

  3. 4. 5. 6.

The Conference eased the tension in fhe Far East However, It only limited the capital ships but not other ship and weapons; No restriction on the size of army; No punitive measures Germany and the Soviet Union were excluded

The Locarno Treaties (1925)
A

conference was called in Locarno, Switzerland, in October 1925 to guarantee German boundaries with her neighbouring states  Germany signed a separate treaty with France and Belgium with Britain and Italy as guarantors  Germany signed agreements with France, Belgium, Poland and Czechoslovakia to use arbitration to settle any disputes concerning frontier

 France

offered help to Poland and Czechoslovakia in case of German aggression  Britain offered help to France and Belgium if Germany violated their boundaries  The Treaties offer a period of goodwill to Europe  Germany was admitted to the League of Nations and Germany experienced an economic bright period after the treaties were signed

The Briand-Kellogg Pact
 Briand

and Kellogg initiated a multilateral agreement to renounce war in 1928  As a result the Pact was signed by 65 nations  The signatories agreed to renounce war as an instrument of national policy, except for self-defense

 The

Pact created an atmosphere of optimism, especially the Pact was signed by the US and Soviet Union  However, the Pact did not define ‘Selfdefence’ or did not include any sanction clause

The Disarmament Conferences
 The

Washington Conference, 1921-22  The London Naval Disarmament Conference, 1930  The Geneva Disarmament Conference 1932-33 Most of the disarmament conference ended in failure. After the Geneva Conference many states increased their armament

Reasons for the failure of the Collective Security System
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

German hatred towards the Peace Treaty The Covenant of the League of nations incorporated in all the peace treaties Italy and Japan disregarding the system Anglo-French appeasement The US isolationist policy The effect of Great Depression

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