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Trng i Hc Nha Trang Vin cng ngh sinh hc v mi trng C CH TC DNG CA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Duy Nhm: 3

Nha trang, 26/09/11

Ni dung
I. II. Tng quan v probiotic Probiotic chng li mt s vi khun c hi C ch hot ng ca probiotic Cc c ch hiu qu ca probiotic Kt lun

III.
IV. V.

probiotic

Vi khun gy hi

I.Tng quan v probiotics


1. Khi nim Probiotics l vsv sng c b sung vao thc n mang li nhng tac dung tt cho c th ng vt bng cach duy tri s cn bng vi khun ng rut. Probiotics c cung cp qua sa m, rau, cc sn phm t sa (sa chua,phomats) v cc loi thc phm khc (socola, ng cc...).

I.2 Tiu ch la chn vi sinh vt lm probiotic


C kh nng bm dnh vo nim mc ng tiu ha (GI) ca vt ch D nui cy Khng sinh cht c v khng gy bnh cho vt ch C kh nng tn ti c lp trong mt thi gian di C kh nng sinh enzyme hoc cc sn phm cui cng m vt ch c th s dng c Chu c pH thp d dy v mui mt rut non Biu hin hiu qu c li i vi vt ch.

I.3 Cc ch phm probiotic ph bin hin nay


Probiotics ph bin l cc ch phm cha vi khun sinh acid lactic (LAB) nh : lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, enterococci. Cc LAB c hiu qu mnh chng li cc tc nhn gy bnh nh: E.coli spp, Samonella spp, Pseudomonas spp, v Campylobacter spp. Mt s chng khc c s dng lm probiotics nh: Bacillus subtilis, mt s cu khun Gram dng: E.faecium, Streptococcus, nm men. Tuy nhin cc chng ny c hiu qu km hn so vi LAB

I.3 Cc ch phm probiotic ph bin hin nay: lactobacillus, streptococus, bifidobacteria, bacillus, sacharomyces boulardii (Nm men) lactobacillus

Streptococcus

Bifidobacteria

Nm men

I.Tng quan v probiotics (tt)

I.4 Li ch
Probiotics mang li li ch ln cho sc khe: - Bo v nim mc rut khi nhng cht c hi - Ngn chn s pht trin ca vi khun gy bnh trong ng rut (E. coli, Salmonella) - Thc y sc khe ca nim mc rut - Kch thch h thng min dch trong c th nh hng ca probiotic c th l trc tip hoc gin tip thng qua h vi sinh vt ng rut

II. C ch hot ng ca probiotic


1. Cnh tranh dinh dng 2. Cnh tranh v tr bm vi vi sinh vt gy bnh 3. Sn xut cc hp cht khng khun 4. c ch h thng quorum sensing 5. Bo v v tng cng chc nng hng ro biu m

II.1 Competing for nutrients


Tt c cc vi sinh vt u cn st tng trng Siderophore l mt cht c kh nng gn vi cc ion st, ha tan st d dng cho vi sinh vt Cc VSV v hi sinh siderophore c th s dng nh probiotic cnh tranh st vi cc VK gy hi Loi b c i th cnh tranh dinh dng v nng lng dng cho VK probiotic v cho vt ch

II.2.1 The antagonism of receptor sites on the host epithelium


Cc t bo biu m, ng rut, ming v m o, l t bo ch cho hng triu v tr gn th th ca vi khun khc nhau Khi probiotics lin kt vi v tr gn th th trn t bo biu m, lm thay i nim mc ca t bo v t bo ln cn. Do vi khun c hi t c th dnh bm. Probiotics c th tm thy im gn trong rt nhiu v tr, do ngn nga vi khun c hi xm nhp

II.2.1.1 Phng php test s bm dnh ca probiotics


Mt phng php in hnh nh gi c tnh kt dnh ca VK probiotics l s dng nui cy t bo biu m rut, thng l dng t bo Caco_2, HT_29 hoc t bo tit ra dch nhy HT_29_MTX
Tnh dnh bm ph thuc vo:chng ring bit, tui ca t bo nui cy Khng nh hng n s sn xut cytokine ca tb biu m

a. s dnh bm vo dng t bo biu m rut

Kt qu

Vi khun bm dnh trn nim mc rut nh c ch c trng (cht bm dnh v cc phn t th th ca rut) v c ch khng c trng (da vo nhng yu t ha hc) Mt vi thnh phn cu to ca vi khun: protein thnh t bo, carbohydrates, v axit lipoteichoic c xem l c lin quan n tnh dnh bm ca probiotics vo rut

II.2.1.6 Cc nhn t nh hng n c tnh dnh bm ca probiotics


c tnh dnh bm ca probiotics l c trng theo chng v nhng nhn t nh: c tnh v thnh phn ca thnh t bo, tng vt ch c th l yu t quan trng quyt nh tnh dnh bm. Ngoi ra mt vi nhn t khc cng gin tip nh hng n nhng c tnh dnh bm

Cc nhn t nh hng (tt)


factor
pH thp

Study design

effect

references
(8, 24) (64)

S dnh bm ca probiotic vo Tng s dnh bm t bo biu m Caco-2 S thay i tnh dnh bm ph thuc vo chng

S c mt ca S dnh bm ca probiotic vo Gim s dnh bm mt nim mc Pha sinh trng S dnh bm ca L.fermentum vo keratinizing biu m d dy chut Tnh dnh bm pha n nh cao hn pha lag

(25,52)

(68)

S dnh bm ca probiotic vo Tnh dnh bm gim pha log, dng t bo biu m Caco-2 tng pha n nh

(8)

Mi trng sinh trng

Cc chng probiotic c kh nng dnh bm vo glycoprotein

Mi trng nui cy c nh hng n s dnh bm

(60)

Cc nhn t nh hng (tt)


S c mt ca acid i khng S c mt ca mt i khng VSV ni sinh S dnh bm ca acid lm thay i dch nhy ca Bifidobacterium S dnh bm ca mt i khng lm thay i dch nhy ca Bifidobacterium S c mt ca acid i khng c th lm tng bm dnh S c mt ca mt i khng c th lm tng bm dnh (15)

(25)

S dnh bm vo nim mc H sinh vt ni sinh khng nh trong s c mt ca sinh hng n s dnh bm vo nim vt trong phn hay mng mc trong in vitro nhy S dnh bm ca cc probiotic t hp vi ileostomy glycoprotein S t hp ca nhiu probiotic c th h tr n tnh dnh bm

(51,56)

S c mt ca cc chng probiotic khc

(54)

S dnh bm ca probiotic Cc chng probiotic c th lm vo t bo biu m rut ln gim tnh dnh bm ca cc chng IPEC-J2 khc Lin kt ca c S dnh bm ca t Lactobacillus GG dng t bo biu m Caco-2 S dnh bm gim khi c t lin kt vi t bo

(44)

(39)

Cc nhn t nh hng (tt)


Cc enzymes tiu ha S dnh bm ca probiotic vo nim mc S dnh bm ca Propionibacterium acidipropionici vo t bo rut S dnh bm ca probiotic thng mi vo mng nhy S dnh bm ca probiotic v dng t bo biu m Caco-2 phn lp ngi S dnh bm ca probiotic t bo biu m rut ln IPEC-J2 S c mt ca cc ion Zn2+ v Mg2+ S dnh bm ca probiotic t bo biu m rut ln IPEC-J2 Lm gim tnh dnh bm trong (52) hu ht cc trng hp Khng nh hng n tnh dnh (76) bm

S c mt ca lignans S c mt ca Canxi

Tng tnh dnh bm ca mt s chng S dnh bm c hoc khng ph thuc vo Canxi trong mt s trng hp S dnh bm ca hu ht cc chng u tng nh s c mt ca Ca

(43)

(5,6,12,14)

(44)

Mg2+ v Zn2+ khng nh hng (44) n s dnh bm

II.2.1.7 Tnh dnh bm v hn ch nhng c tnh ca probiotic bt hot


VK probiotics bt hot bi nhit cng c kh nng bm dnh v nhng c tnh bm dnh lin quan n tnh c trng b mt t bo hn l hot ng TC hay phn chia t bo Nhng cch thc bt hot khc nhau c th gy ra nhng thay i ca loi c th v c tnh kt dnh ca t bo VD: tng nhit c th ci thin cc chng probiotics nhng cng c th gy bt li n cc thuc tnh dnh bm ca cc chng khc

II.2.1.8 Vai tr ca tui v thi gian bnh trong bm dnh


S bin i ca cc vi sinh vt ng tiu ha dn n mt s bnh ng tiu ha v cc bnh khc. Hn na, tui c gi l c lin quan n s khc bit trong thnh phn cc vi sinh vt ng tiu ha, c bit l Bifidobacteria Do mt vi nguyn nhn c tnh dnh bm ca nim mc rut c th thay i sut thi gian bnh. Kh nng xm nhim ca mt vi probiotic cc i tng bnh cng c nh gi

Probiotics

Thit k th nghim

Kt qu

Tham kho

Bifidobacteria phn lp t ngi cao tui v ngi trng thnh


Bifidobacteria thng mi

Trong nghin cu in vitro s dnh bm vo nim mc ngi

S bm dnh ca Bifidobacteria ngi cao tui gim so vi ngi trng thnh

(30)

Trong in vitro s dnh bm vo nim mc tr em, ngi trng thnh v ngi cao tui

S dnh bm vo nim mc ca nhng ngi cao tui gim so vi ngi trng thnh v tr em

(53)

Bifidobacteria Trong nghin cu in S dnh bm vo nim mc t tr b d ng vitro s dnh bm vo tr b d ng gim so vi nim mc nhng ngi nhng tr khe mnh tnh nguyn khe mnh

(27,29)

Cc probiotic thng mi

S dnh bm vo nim mc v m rut kt c ct t nhng bnh nhn b ri lon rut nng

S dnh bm ph thuc vo bnh tt

(57,59)

Cc probiotic thng mi

S dnh bm vo nim S nhim Rotavirus mc tr b nhim khng nh hng ti s Rotavirus bm dnh

(38)

Bifidobacteriu Probiotic c a m infantis vo cc bnh nhn b nhim trng vim kt trng L. plantaum 299v Probiotic c a vo cc bnh nhn nguy kch

Cc chng probiotic (75) c khi phc t cc sinh thit cho thy c s xm nhim tm thi Chng probiotic c (42) khi phc t 3/9 cc sinh thit, c s xm nhim tm thi

II.2.2 Probiotics t hp, s dnh bm v kt t mm bnh


a. Kt tu
cc hiu ng biu hin c li, vi khun probiotic cn phi kt hp to thnh mt khi. Do , kh nng kt t ca probiotic l mt c tnh mong mun.

Cc sinh vt c kh nng ng kt t vi cc vi khun khc c th l li th hn sinh vt khng c ng kt t.

b. dnh bm
o S dnh bm cc biu m ng rut v cht nhy c lin quan n s kch thch ca h thng min dch (80, 114), v s dnh bm vo nim mc rut cng rt quan trng cho xm nhim tm thi (114),l mt iu kin tin quyt quan trng ca probiotic kim sot s cn bng ca h vi sinh vt ng rut .
o Cht nhy ng rut c mt vai tr kp, n bo v nim mc ca cc loi vi sinh vt ch trong khi cung cp mt vi tr lin kt ban u, ngun dinh dng, v l mi trng thun li cho vi khun sinh si ny n.

b. dnh bm (tt)
o S dnh bm l mt qu trnh phc tp bao gm c ch khng c hiu (k nc) v th th c hiu. o S dnh bm ca cc t bo vi khun thng lin quan n c im b mt t bo. Nhiu tc gi bo co rng kh nng ng kt t ca cc loi Lactobacillus c th kch hot n to thnh mt ro cn ngn chn s xm nhp ca vi khun gy bnh.

d. Yu t quyt nh s dnh bm

Cc c ch dnh bm lin quan n yu t th ng, lc tnh in v k nc, acid lipoteichoic, v cc cu trc c trng nh l polysaccharides v lectin. Thnh phn protein c lin quan n s dnh bm ca cc chng probiotic ln cc t bo rut.

e. S t hp trong probiotic
S t hp gia cc chng probiotics khc nhau c th hiu qu hn so vi cc chng n l. Tuy nhin, hiu qu c th b v hiu nu cc chng khng c chn lc mt cch khoa hc, cht ch. c mt chng minh rng: s kt hp ca cc chng probiotic c th b sung hoc ci thin hot tnh cho tng chng ring bit trong t hp .

e. S t hp trong probiotic (tt) Khi s dng probiotics t hp gip tng cng kh nng dnh bm ln nim mc rut ca tng chng probiotics ring r. V vy, cn thit nghin cu thm v nh hng ca cc sn phm nui cy v trao i cht trong dnh bm ca cc chng probiotic tm ra cc t hp tt nht s dng trong cc sn phm thc phm chc nng.

III.Production of Antimicrobial Compounds


LAB cnh tranh vi cc vi sinh vt khc trong sinh thi c trng bng cch sn xut cc hp cht i khng v thay i mi trng ca chng thng qua vic sn xut cc hp cht trao i th cp Cc hp cht khng khun in hnh gm: hp cht trng lng phn t thp < 1,000da nh cc acid hu c, reuterin, reutericyclin, hydro peroxide, acetoin, diacyl v nhm cc bacteriocin c trng lng phn t cao > 1,000da Mi cht khng khun c kh nng nhn bit vi khun ch gy hi. S c mt ca VK sinh cc cht khng khun trong rut ca vt ch, trn b mt hoc trong mi trng nui to ra mt hng ro ngn chn s sinh si ca cc mm bnh.

Bng II: Tm tt cc hp cht khng khun c sn xut bi cc loi Lactobacillus


Kiu hp cht Hp cht Tn gi khc/ Ngun vi sinh ng dung tn thng vt mi Lactobacillus plantarum Thuc phng bnh, bo qun, khng khun, ph gia thc phm -

Acid lactic Acid huc Acid acetic Acid 3- Phenyllactic

Lactobacillus plantarum (MiLAB 393)

Acid 4-hydroxyphenyllactic v tetrameric derivative

Reutericyclin Lactobacillus plantarum (MiLAB 393) Reuterin Lactobacillus reuteri

Acetaldehyde Aldehyds 3- hydroxypropionaldehyde (3- HPA)

Bacteriocins

Nicin Plantiricin
L-

Lactobacillus plantarum Lactobacillus pentosus Lactobacillus plantarum (MiLAB 393) Lactobacillus plantarum Lactobacillus plantarum -

Bo qun, phngbnh Ph khng khun rng Khng Nm Khng Nm

Phe-L- Pro

Cyclic dipeptides

Cyclo- Gly- L-Leu

L-Phe-trans-4-OH-L-Pro

Hydrogen peroxide Tetrahydro -4- hydroxy-4methyl-2H-pyran-2-one 5-methyl-2,4imidazolidinedione Diacyl

Mevalonolactone Methylhydantoin -

Ph khng khun rng Khng Nm -

Khc

III.1 Sn xut cc hp cht khng khun trng lng phn t thp


a. Production of Organic Acids
Trong qu trnh tng trng k kh (anaerobic growth) vi khun ln men trong ng tiu ha to ra cc acid hu c Hm lng v loi acid hu c c sn xut ph thuc vo loi v iu kin tng trng ca vi khun Theo cch ln men carbohydrate Lactobacilli c chia ra ba nhm: ln men ng hnh (homofementative), ln men d hnh ty tin (facutatively heterofermentative) v d hnh bt buc (obligatively heterofermentative)

Ln men ng hnh: lactobacilli ln men hexose sinh cc acid lactic thng qua con ng glycolysis Ln men d hnh ty tin: lactobacilli ln men hexose to cc acid lactic, acid acetic, ethanol v acid formic Ln men d hnh bt buc: - Lactobacilli ln men hexoses to cc acid lactic,acid acetic, ethanol, CO2.Trong khi pentoses c ln men to acid lactic v acid acetic - Cc lactobacilli c sinh mt loi kh t s phn gii cacbohydrate hoc lactobacilli sn xut mt s cht l (exotic) nh 1,2 propanediol.

Hnh thc ln men n gin nht l ln men ng hnh LAB, ch ln men ng hexose to lactate. Trong iu kin hn ch ng hoc oxy th c kh nng ln men d hnh to ra lactate, acetate v mt lng nh ethanol. Cc acid hu c c hiu qu khng khun trn mm bnh .Cn butyrate, propionate, formate c th iu chnh c vi khun c kh nng gy bnh

Mt s cc tc nhn gy bnh s dng cc acid bo bay hi nh cht ch th chn lc preferential xm nhp. Vd:- S.Typhimurium c hai thnh phn BarA/SirA gip iu chnh mi trng ng rut v iu chnh s biu hin ca TTSS-1(Type Three Secretion System 1) - H thng tit ny m ha cho cc c quan, tc ng cc protein cn thit cho Salmonella xm nhp vo cc t bo biu m khng thc bo Acetate v formate c hot tnh kch thch v to iu kin cho s xm nhp trong S.Typhimurium Butyrate v propionate lm gim kh nng gy bnh ca SPI-1 (Salmonella pathogenicity island 1) m ha TTSS-1.C kh nng bin i mi trng gip gim s xm nhp v pht tn bo t Salmonella trong sn xut thc n ng vt

Cc acid hu c to pH ca ng rut gip hiu qu khng khun mnh - Ti pH thp acid hu c phn ly lin tc.pH nh hng trc tip n tng s acid khng phn ly khuch tn qua mng vi khun. - S phn ly cao ca cc proton v anion hu c bn trong t bo lm yu lc di chuyn ca proton qua mng vi khun.v khng c gradien proton c lc ATPase F1/F10 nn lm gim kh nng sn xut ATP ca vi khun Acid hu c lm thiu ht ATP ni bo,gy ra s thm qua mng, gii phng LPS ra khi mng t bo vi khun.Lm cho mng b mn cm vi cc tc nhn nh: bacterioxin, cht ty ra, mt.

a.1 Lactic acid


Sn phm ln men chnh ca LAB l L- lactate,c s dng bo qun cc sn phm tht v kim sot mm bnh trn cc sn phm v b mt tht Acid lactic c kh nng thm qua mng mnh (membrane permeabilizer), l nguyn nhn gy tn thng, ph hy mng t bo E.coli.
Theo tnh thm, hot ng ca axit lactic c th to iu kin thun li cho cc hot ng ca cc yu t khng khun khc

C ch tc ng khng khun ca lactate l lm gim pH ca mt t bo vi khun thng qua s phn ly cc acid hu c v lc cc cation ha tr hai chui LPS mi n nh

b. Hydrogen Peroxide
Lactobacilli sn xut hydro peroxide khi trong mi trng nui c mt oxy Hydro peroxide l phn t quan trng iu tit h vi sinh vt m o (vaginal) v gy c cho cc mm bnh C hot tnh khng khun mnh trong c invitro v invivo nh tc dng oxy ha mnh m trn t bo vi khun (hydroxyl trit ) Nhiu loi lactobacilli c kh nng sinh hydro peroxyde trong ng rut, c bit l trong rut non

c. CO2
CO2 ch yu c hnh thnh t ln men lactic d hnh CO2 c th trc tip to ra trong mi trng k kh v c hi i vi mt s vi sinh vt hiu kh thng qua hot ng ca chng trn trn mng t bo Hot ng khng khun ca phn t CO2 c cho l do s c ch ca enzyme decacboxyl v s tch ly ca CO2 trong mng lipit gy ra ri lon tnh thm ca mng CO2 c th c hiu qu chng li s pht trin ca vi sinh vt gy h hng thc phm, khng vi khun gram m, c hiu qu v phng din thng mi ha p dng cho cc sn phm lm lnh.

c. Reuterin and Reutericyclin

Reuterin l hp cht khng khun c trng c sn xut bi Lactobacillus spp Reuterin, - hydroxypropionaldehyde l mt ph khng khun rng c sn xut bi mt s chng L.reuteri Sn xut reuterin trong iu kin k kh ti u trn 1 hn hp ca ng v glycerol hoc glyceraldehydes Sn xut reuterin ph thuc vo s c mt ca glycerol dehyratase,co-enzyme B12 Reuterin l mt aldehyde tan trong nc,tn ti trong hn hp phc tp gm monomeric,hydrated monomeric v cyclic dimeric nhng cu trc ca hydroxypropionaldehyde

Reuterin hot ng trong phm vi pH rng,c kh nng chu c protease v lipases, v c hot tnh khng khun khng li cc mm bnh c trong thc phm Trong giai on tng trng, Reuterin khng sn xut do s gim trao i cht ca ng. Khi cc t bo tham gia vo giai on tng trng, Reuterin bt u tch ly. Hn na, Reuterin tch ly khi tip xc vi cc t bo mc tiu

Reutericyclin l mt dn xut acid tetrameric sn xut bi chng L.reuteri .Bao gm mt u a nc mang in tch m v hai chui bn k nc Reutericyclin c cho l to nn cc knh,l trn mng vi khun,tuy nhin cc nghin cu s dng thuc nhum hunh quang (fluorescent dyes) cho thy proton in th xuyn mng,hnh thnh l v in th kali xuyn qua mng. Reutericylin khng to nn cc l mng nhng lm mt kh nng proton xuyn mng chn lc gy phn tn PMF (proton motive force)

d. Other Secondary Metabolites


Nhiu lactobacilli ln men to cc sn phm ph l cc hp cht c hng thm nh: Diacetyl v acetoin.ngoi ra cn c acetaldehide, ethanol - Diacetyl c hnh thnh khi t bo c hot tnh acetaldehyde t pyruvate v thiamine pyruvate - Acetoin c hnh thnh bng cch decarboxylation - acetolatate, hoc bng cch gim diacetyl bi diacetyl reductase Vi khun Gram m, nm men, nm mc nhy cm hn vi diacetyl so vi vi khun gram dng v phng thc hot ng ca n c cho l do s can thip vi vic s dng khong cht

III.2 Sn xut cc hp cht khng khun trng lng phn t cao :Bacteriocin
Bacteriocins l cc peptide khng khun,bn cht protein c tng hp qua ribosome vi khun - Cc bacteriocin c hot tnh khng cc vi sinh vt cnh tranh trong cng sinh thi v thng khng cng loi (ph hp) hoc qua chi (ph rng) - Cc bacteriocin c hot tnh cao,do cc vi sinh vt sn xut da vo cc protein min dch t bo v trnh cc bacteriocin ring ca chng Cc bacteriocin c hot tnh mnh nht vi khun Gram dng v LAB c trng khc

Classification of Bacteriocins
Vic phn loi l quan trng thit k peptide khng sinh mi.c chia ba nhm chnh Class I : Lanthionine lp I cha cc bacteriocin c gi l lantibiotic Class I lantibiotics: lantibiotics c gc acid amin khng c bn cht l protein v methyllanthionine,c cc lin kt ng ha tr gia cc acid amin. Hai lantibiotic ph bin l nisin v mersacidin. Nisin l bacteriocin lp I tiu chun bao gm mt peptide amphiphilic, hnh thnh nn cc l trn mng vi khun.Lm phn tn PMF v l mt nguyn nhn gy thot mt s cht trao i cht t t bo

Class II: Non- lanthionine cha bacteriocin ,ph bin hn lp I nh t yu cu sa i sau dch m hn Bacteriocin lp II l cc peptide nh (<10kDa) bn nhit C ch hot ng tng t lp Class III L cc Bacteriolysins gy thy phn thnh t bo trong cc t bo mn cm.Chng c s tng ng vi cc peptide ni bo Lysostaphin,l mt bacteriolysin c kh nng git chng Staphilococcus aureus trong t pht nh hot ng ca endopeptidase glycylglycine v tch cc lin kt cho pentaglycine trong peptidoglycan Staphylococcal

Ngoi cc VK Gram dng, bacteriocin cn c hot tnh khng VK Gram m Nghin cu hot tnh khng vi khun Gram m Enterobacteriacae l mt lnh vc quan trong v l tng cho vic kim sot cc mm bnh trong sn xut thc n ng vt trong tng lai Bacteriocin c th hu ch trong cc loi vi khun ch khng mong mun nh cc mm bnh trong thc n v cnh tranh loi tr mm bnh trong ng tiu ha ca vt ch

III.3 Inhibition of Quorum Sensing Mechanisms


Vi khun probiotic tit ra cc cht trao i th cp vo trong mi trng nui chng.Nhiu trong s hp cht ny c hiu qu khng khun khng li cc vi sinh vt khc Gn y, L.plantarum tit mt hp cht cha xc nh c m c kh nng ngn cn cc tn hiu quorum sensing vi Pseudomonas aeruginosa v lm gim ng k s xm nhim ca P.aeruginosa trong m hnh chut

Video

III.4 Protection or Ehancement of the Epithelial Barrier Function


Mm bnh xm nhp vo ng GI bng cch nh bm hoc lin kt vi t bo biu m vt ch Probiotic,c bit l lactobacilli v bifidobacteria ngn cn cc lin kt mt thit ban u ca mm bnh v t bo biu m vt ch Mt s hp cht cha xc nh c trn b mt L.acidophilus c hot ng quorum sensing hoc nh hng trc tip n v tr ca LEE (locus of enterocyte effacement) theo quy nh phin m trc tip

Mm bnh trong thc phm cn phi lin kt cht ch hoc xuyn qua biu m ng rut vt ch.cc qu trnh ny thng quy nh bi h thng tit kiu III hoc kiu IV. EspF,mt h thng tit kiu III tc ng ti cc phn t tit bi mm bnh ng rut E.coli gy ra s sp xp actin cytoskeleton v lm tn thng chc nng hng ro biu m. L.acidophilus v L.rhamnosus c chng minh l lm gim s nh bm ca E.coli vi t bo biu m ng rut

IV. C ch hiu qu ca probiotic


Kch thch h thng min dch Gim nhim trng ng niu (gy bi candida) Gim tiu chy ng vt non, tr em (do virus rota) Gim bnh nhim trng Mt s hiu qu khc : ci thin tnh trng dung np Lactose, khng ung th..

Probiotic chim ch v trung ha c t ca cc vi khun c hi, sn xut cc vitamin v men tiu ha, tng cng to cc khng th gip nng cao kh nng min dch

Chng Lactobacillus
Hot ha i thc bo Kch thch hnh thnh bch cu Tng tng hp IgA

Tng kh nng s dng interferon gamma

b. S tac ng ca vi khun hi sinh va vi khun gy bnh vi h thng min dch ng rut S tng tc ny l trung tm ca vic duy tr ni cn bng min dch. Cc t bo nang v t bo ui gai l nhng t bo u tin ca h thng min dch nim mc l ni vi khun hi sinh v vi khun gy bnh bt gp Cc VSV c ngha trong h tiu ha, t bo biu m d dy v cc t bo ui gai trong cc t chc lympho ng tiu ha c trang b vi cc th th nhn dng mu (PRRs), nhn bit cc mu bo tn phn t v cc mm bnh (215).

Hiu qu kch thch min dch nim mc


Probiotic lm tng cng p ng min dch, nht l min dich t nhin. Lactobacillus c kh nng hot ha i thc bo, kch thch hnh thnh bch cu trung tnh, kch thch t bo tua , lm tng kh nng tng hp IgA v tng cng kh nng tng hp interferon gamma.
Kch thch min dch v tng hp thu

p ng min dch chng d ng


Probiotic kch thch tng hp IgA c hiu nim mc rut. Tng cng chc nng ca hng ro VSV ng rut thng qua vic phc hi h VSV bnh thng Gy tc ng bin i cc yu t tng trng beta v s sn sinh IL 10 cng nh cc cytokine kch thch sn xut khng th IgE IL 10 l cht do t bo TH2 sinh ra do tc ng ln i thc bo gy c ch s sn sinh cytokine v do gin tip m gim s sn sinh t bo cytokine ca t bo TH1

d. Immunomodulation
Probiotic bin i gen (gennetically modified) tng cng hiu qu kch thch min dch Grangette v cng s(2005) xy dng mt L.plantarum NCIMB8826 t bin Dlt tc l acid teichoic c mt trong L.plantarum cha t D- alanine hn - Dlt t bin ny gip bo v nhiu hn trong m hnh chut vim i trng khi so snh vi chut cha m v chng t bin biu hin kh nng vim mnh trong c nghin cu invitro v invivo vi s tng ng k s tit IL-10

g. Hiu qu ca probiotic trong vic thch nghi cc p ng min dch : (t


bo T Helper v cc t bo T Regulatory)

Vi khun probiotic kch thch iu khin sn xut cytokine v cc t bo T regulatory trong in vitro Vi khun probiotic c th c hiu qu tc dng khc nhau trn c hai p ng min dch bm sinh v thch nghi Mt s chng Lactobacillus c ch s pht trin t bo T, kch thch sn xut IL10 v TGF-beta, gim sn xut cytokine Th1 v cytokine Th2 trong in vitro. Trong mt s mu ng vt v th nghim lm sng ngi, iu tr bng probiotic lm tng IL-10 hoc sn xut TGF-beta, tng lng t bo CD4 + ca t bo T regulatory.

h. S phn phi ca cac vi khun probiotic


Hiu qu c li ca vi khun probiotic ph thuc vo s tiu th thc n trong cc th sng. Vi khun phi tn ti lu trong qu trnh tiu ha ca vt ch, s xm nhim trong rut, gn v bm cht vo biu m rut gy ra hiu qu gin tip trong in vivo. S bt hot bi nhit vi khun probiotic c cho rng gy ra cc triu chng bt li v tiu ha v tiu chy

Tng iu khin m ha gen nim mc kch thch sn xut cht nhy to thnh hng ro bo v LGG tn ti thng qua ng tiu ha v dnh bm trn nim mc rut v cc t bo biu m. LGG lm thay i h vi sinh vt bng cch to ra mt mi trng thc y tng trng bifidobacterial v lm tng tng s vi khun k kh, c th l bifidobacteria, Bacteroides, v clostridia.

i. Hiu qu c trng ca probiotics


Cc loi v chng probiotics khc nhau c hiu qu khc nhau c trong in vitro ln in vivo. Cc hiu qu lm sng hoc trong th nghim ca probiotic c th khng ng cho loi probiotic khc, ngay c cc chng khc nhau trong cng mt loi LGG tng cng p ng IgA chng Rotavirus, khng c tm thy vi cc chng khc nhau ca cng mt loi Trong in vitro, cc loi Lactobacillus khc nhau th nng sut sn xut IL-12 bi cc t bo ui gai chut th khc nhau.

IV.2 Gim nhim trng ng niu (Candida)


- Candida l mt loi nm men, vt ch l c th con ngi. - Khi h thng c th b thay i hoc bin ng; tiu th nhiu carbonhydrat n gin (ng, ng cc, cc sn phm sa) , s dng thuc trnh thai, steroid, cc thuc khng acid, khng sinh, mang thai, ht thuc, d ng , tiu ng dn n s pht trin qu mc ca Candida. - Cc loi Lactobacilli khi kt hp vi VVC, sn xut ra H2O2 (cht dit khun).

IV.3 Gim tiu chy tr em do virus rota


Cc virus ny xm nhp vo cc t bo nh nhung mao rut, ph hy nhung mao, lm mt kh nng hp th cht dinh dng v cht in gii Cc chng probiotic hiu qu : Bifidobacterium, Streptococus thermophilus

C ch tc ng ca probiotic i vi virus Rota:


- LAB cnh tranh v tr th th ti b mt nh nhung mao rut non, ni m cc virus rota vn bm - LAB kch thch IgA tng cng chng li Virus Rota - Truyn tn hiu t probiotic ti vt ch nhm iu khin hng ro tit v nhu ng loi b cc cht c.Cht nhy ca rut non c ch Virus Rota. - C ch cui cng l cc LAB sn xut cc cht nh acid v cc cht khng Virus lm bt hot Virus

IV.4 Gim bnh nhim trng


a. E. coli
Escherichia coli O157: H7 (E. coli) l nguyn nhn hng u ca bnh do thc phm Nhim trng E.coli thng dn n tiu chy ra mu v i khi suy thn E.coli xm nhp v gn vo cc t bo biu m ca vt ch gy ra nhng thay i bt li Probiotic c th lm thay i cc t bo rut, c ch kh nng nh bm v tng trng ca E.coli L. acidophilus, L. rhamnosus l probiotics hiu qu cho nhng vng rut b nhim

b. H.Pylori
- Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori thng gy vim d dy mn tnh, lot d dy t trng v ung th d dy. - Probiotics c th ngn chn, gim vim do vi khun H. pylori gy ra nh kh nng chu c pH thp ca d dy v nh km vo lp nim mc ca d dy. - L. acidophilus, L. gasseri v L.rhamnosus, L. reuteri l cc chng probiotic thng c s dng

-H. Pylori l mt loi vi khun c hi c th sng cc t bo lt d dy, pht trin mnh trong mi trng acid.

c. Salmonella
- Salmonella l mt loi vi khun sng trong ng rut ngi v ng vt gy nhim trng, tiu chy - B sung probiotic gip gim thi gian tiu ,gip tng cng min dch, gip vt ch c sc khe tt hn, ngn chn s tng trng Samonella - Cc loi thng dng Lacobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum v Streptococcus faecalis. Ngoi ra c cc loi probiotics khc S. cerevisiae v L. reuteri

IV.5 Cc c ch hiu qu khc


Ngoi cc c ch hiu qu trn, Probotic cn c vai tr: Tng cng kh nng tiu ha Lactose nhng ngi khng dung np Lactose v hot ng ca cc Enzyme khc ; C kh nng khng ung th, ngn nga ung th rut kt Tng trng gia sc, gia cm Gim tc dng ph ca thuc khng sinh Gim lng cholesterol trong mu, h huyt p Ngy nay, khi nim Probiotic cn c m rng cho mi trng

V. Kt lun
Vic hiu r c ch hot ng ca probiotics v ng dng ca probiotics trong lm sng ha hn tim nng to ln trong la chn cc loi, cc chng probiotics c th sn xut cc ch phm probiotics c li

Danh sch nhm 3


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Nguyn Anh Thi Nguyn Th Tho Trang Trnh Nh Ngc Phan Th Ngc Yn Phan Th Huyn Trn Nguyn Th Ngc 7. Trng Anh Quang 8. Nguyn Vn Tin 9. Phm Thy Anh 10. Nguyn Hong Thc Linh 11. Nguyn Th Thanh Nh