What Is Bluetooth?

You're coming back home after a long, hard day. You've met some important people and entered notes about the meetings in your PDA. Now, you want to transfer the information to your PC. The traditional way to do this is to pull out the Hotsych cradle, connect the two together, and start the transfer…... Consider this scenario instead - the moment you enter your room, you touch a button on your PDA, and the data gets transferred to your PC. NO physical connections, no need to start up synchronization software, not even the need to be near your PC. Wouldn't you like that? Say hello to

INTRODUCTION
• Bluetooth is a global de facto standard for wireless connectivity. Based on a low-cost, short-range radio link, Bluetooth cuts the cords that used to tie up digital devices. • When two Bluetooth equipped devices come within 10 meters range of each other, they can establish a connection together. And because Bluetooth utilizes a radio-based link, it doesn't require a line-of-sight connection in order to communicate.

Why the Funny Name?
•Bluetooth is named after King Harald Blåtand (Bla: dark skinned, tan: great man) of Denmark who united Denmark and Norway in the 10th century. •Bluetooth is similarly expected to unite the worlds of computing and telecom.

Know your History !
1994 - Ericsson releases Bluetooth specification. Early 1998 - Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) was formed. July 1999 - Bluetooth 1.0 Specification Release. 2000 - 2001 - Ongoing work on Bluetooth 2.0 Specification.

The Bluetooth SIG
The Bluetooth Special Interest Group is an industry group, comprised of leaders in the telecommunications and computing industries that are driving development and promotion of Bluetooth wireless technology and bringing it to market in a broad range of products.

•The SIG has over 2500 member companies worldwide. • Bluetooth is an open standard. The Bluetooth standard is available royalty-free at the official Bluetooth website Bluetooth.com

The Special Interest Group.
3COM ERICSSON MICROSOFT IBM INTEL MOTOROLA NOKIA TOSHIBA OGERE

Why Bluetooth?
Bluetooth standard is aimed at achieving global acceptance such that any Bluetooth device, anywhere in the world, can connect to other Bluetooth devices in its proximity, regardless of brand. Bluetooth enabled electronic devices connect and communicate “wirelessly” via short-range, ad hoc networks called piconets. Each unit can simultaneously communicate with up to seven other units per piconet. Moreover, each unit can simultaneously belong to several piconets.

Ad hoc networking
*These piconets are established dynamically and automatically as Bluetooth devices enter and leave the radio proximity. *Since each Bluetooth device supports both point-topoint and point-to-multi-point connections, several piconets can be established and linked together ad hoc. The Bluetooth topology is best described as a

In-home Wired Network
xDSL Cordless communicator

Internet Gateway
Display
Enter

Digital cable network

Internet and entertainment gateway

Home Intranet

Display Pad Entertainment gateway Digital satellite network

Vision of a wired Home Intranet.

In-home Bluetooth Network
Office Laptop
Connect to office LAN Email Home Printer access Surf from anywhere Share files Main Home PC

Internet Service Pipe

Family Car
Trip Navigation downloads Download News/Entertainment
3 cups flour 1 cup grated chocolate 1 cup sugar 1 stick butter 1/2 cup chopped walnuts minutes.

Personal display pad
Shopping lists Fast food ordering Book/News/Home PIM

Fridge Pad
Family Calendar Recipe Display Build shopping lists Voice messaging Intercom

Cordless Phone
Remote Speech recognition Call by name Build shopping lists Home PBX

•Life with BLUETOOTH

Bluetooth in Action

Bluetooth can give you a new kind of freedom. You might share information, synchronize data, access the Internet, integrate with LANs or even unlock your car - all by simply using your Bluetooth equipped mobile phone.

Bluetooth Makes Life Easier…..
You arrive at the office and put down your briefcase, while your Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) automatically synchronizes with your desktop PC and transfers files, e-mails and schedule information. While in a meeting, you access your PDA to send your presentation to the electronic whiteboard. You record meeting minutes on your PDA and wirelessly transfer these to the attendees before they leave the meeting.

Upon arriving at your home, the door automatically unlocks for you, the entry way lights come on, and the heat is adjusted to your pre-set preferences.

An alarm notifies you that your toddler has just left the house

You arrive at the airport. A long line is formed for ticketing and seat assignment. You avoid the line, using your PDA to present an electronic ticket and automatically select your seat. The airline's on-line system checks identification via the "ID-tag" feature built into your PDA and confirms your reserved seat. You arrive at the hotel. As you enter, you are automatically checked in and your room number and electronic key are transferred to your PDA. As you approach the room, the door automatically opens.

As you approach your vehicle, the door unlocks automatically, the radio tunes in your favorite station, and the seat adjusts to your preferred settings. As you enter your vehicle, you are reminded of the items on your daily calendar and the results of a recent diagnostic test of your vehicle. You receive a new message en route, which is verbally transmitted to you via the vehicle's speakerphone

The Inside Story

Features Technical Specifications The Bluetooth Protocol St

Bluetooth Features

• Bluetooth uses a short-range (10 meters) radio link. The range can be increased to about 100 meters with boosters, which increase the power of the signals. • The gross data rate is about 1 Mbps

• Bluetooth uses the unlicensed I SM (I ndustrial,
Scientific and Medical) band (2.4 GHz). This makes Bluetooth-enabled products workable across the globe, eradicating compatibility issues.

• • • Normal transmitting power 1 mw • Optional transmitting power 100 mw • Receiver sensitivity -70 dBm • Frequency band 2.4 GHz • Gross data rate 1Mbps • Max. Data transfer 721 +56 kbit/3 voice channels • Power consumption, standby 20 µA • Power consumption, max. 30 µA Packet switching protocol based on a frequency hop scheme with 1600 hops/s

Technical Normal range 10 m Specifications Optional range 100 m

Bluetooth Protocol Stack

Bluetooth defines a protocol stack which essentially consists of the following layers ♦ RADIO - The Bluetooth radio layer is the lowest layer, and defines the frequency, transmitter and receiver characteristics. ♦ BASEBAND - This forms the physical layer and provides ♦ Link control (asynchronous or synchronous) ♦ Error correction ♦ Frequency selection for frequency hopping ♦ Security ♦ LMP (Link Manager Protocol) - This performs link setup, link configuration and authentication. ♦ HCI (Host Controller Interface) - This provides access to the Bluetooth Baseband, hardware status, and control registers. ♦ L2CAP (Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol) - This forms the data link layer. It provides connectionless and connection oriented data services to applications. Two link types are supported for the Baseband layer - SCO (Synchronous Connection-Oriented) and ACL (Asynchronous Connection-Less). ♦ RFCOMM - This provides emulation for serial ports (RS232) on the L2CAP layer. ♦ SDP (Service Delivery Protocol) - It provides means for applications to determine the available services and their characteristics. ♦ APPLICATIONS - The L2CAP may be accessed directly by the applications or through support protocols like RFCOMM, TCS and SDP. The applications may use other protocols like TCP-IP or WAP and Bluetooth allows these to inter operate. The applications may themselves run PPP (Point to point protocol), FTP (file transfer protocol) or other specific protocols as required by the application. An application may use the SDP to discover whether the service it needs from a remote device is available.

How Do Bluetooth Devices Deal With Interference?
• Radio waves can pick up noise from nearby devices like microwave ovens especially since the ISM band is unlicensed. This is where a technique called "frequency hopping" comes into the picture. • Bluetooth has chosen to provide an acknowledgment-based scheme with automatic repeat request (ARQ). What is transferred during a Bluetooth communication are packets. With frequency hopping, after the transmission or reception of a packet, the device hops or changes to a different frequency. The signal frequency changes about 1600 times per second.

• In addition, it uses smaller packets and the header

information in packets which is very critical to the link operation is protected first by a cyclic redundancy check and further a 1/3 rate Forward Error Check (FEC) is applied, which repeats each bit three times.

Competing Technologies
There is no single competitor covering the entire concept of the Bluetooth wireless technology but in certain market segments other technologies exist. IrDA For cable replacement the infrared standard IrDA has been around for some years and is quite well known and widespread. IrDA is faster than the Bluetooth wireless technology but is limited to point-to-point connections and above all it requires a clear line-of-sight. In the past IrDA has had problems with incompatible standard implementations, a lesson that the Bluetooth SIG has learnt. Wireless LAN Wireless LANs based on the IEEE 802.11 standard. The technology is used to replace a wired LAN throughout a building. The transmission capacity is high and so is the number of simultaneous users. On the other hand, compared to Bluetooth wireless technology, it is more expensive and power consuming, and the hardware requires more space. It is therefore not suitable for small mobile devices.

Competing Technologies
Home RF The Home RF also uses the 2.4 GHz radio band and has many similarities to the Bluetooth wireless technology. Home RF can operate ad hoc networks (data only) or be under the control of a connection point coordinating the system and providing a gateway to the telephone network (data & voice). The hop frequency is 8 Hz while a Bluetooth link hops at 1600 Hz. Ultra-Wideband Radio Ultra-Wideband Radio (UWB) is a new radio technology still under development. Short pulses are transmitted in a broad frequency range. The capacity appears to be high while power consumption is expected to be low.

Peak Data Rate IEEE 802.11 IrDA Bluetooth Home RF 2 Mbps 16 Mbps 1 Mbps 1.6 Mbps

Range Relative Voice Cost network support 50m < 2m <10m 50m Medium Low Via IP Via IP

Data network support TCP / IP Via PPP Via PPP TCP / IP

Medium Via IP and cellular Medium Via IP

IEEE 802.11a & 802.11b Time table Frequency band Speed Distance coverage Standards in 1998, Products in 2000 IEEE 802.11a-5GHz, IEEE 802.11b-2.4GHz 11 Mbps - 54 Mbps

Bluetooth Standards in 2000, Products in 2001/2002 2.4 GHz 1 – 2 Mbps

802.11a- Upto 60 feet Upto 30 feet 802.11b- Upto 300 feet Just started in 2002 Cheaper than WLANs Significant interference No interference Much more expensive

Market Penetration Quite widespread Interference Cost

Security – How Much Is Too Much??
• The Bluetooth system is intended to be used as a uniform interface to all of a person's information sources and will thus be expected to transfer sensitive personal data. Security of the data is thus an important issue. • Bluetooth devices are expected to be omnipresent and at some places the access to these devices by public users may have to be restricted. This calls for authentication procedures to be provided. • The scheme used by the Bluetooth standard to tackle these issues is referred to as the challenge response scheme. • The application may itself encrypt its data for added security. That can add to the safety of the data, but the most of the authentication is based on the link level security procedures.

NOW_Headset_sunglasses_cl os

The Dream
You enter a bus and your bus fare is automatically paid by your mobile phone You could even use your mobile phone to control the locking and alarm on your car, as well as integrate it with the car's stereo so you can talk hands free while you are driving.

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