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The Demand for Data Storage

 Itis estimated that 250 megabytes of

information is produced every year for each
man, woman, and child (1 to 2 exabytes in
 Printed documents make up only .003% of
this total.
Today’s Storage Technologies

 Magnetic storage
 Optical storage
 Magneto-optical (MO)
 Solid state storage
Magneto-Optical Storage
 Combines magnetic disk technologies with
laser technology.
 Can be read and written to over one million
 Portable.
 Capacity is 2GB or more per disk.
 Faster than floppies and CDs, but slower
than hard drives.

 Works by reading bumps and low spots, or

pits and lands on a disc with a laser.
 Discs contain three layers: plastic, aluminum,
and acrylic.
 Aluminum layer reflects laser light, a detector
can determine the difference between a pit
and land.
Disc Layers
 Has two layers of data
 One layer is semi-transparent
 Laser can focus through it
Read the second layer
 Both layers are read from the same side
 Advantages:
– Hold twice as much as a single-layer disc
– Long movies use higher data rates for better quality

Digital Versatile Disc / Digital Video Disc

 Red laser
 Backward-compatible with CD-ROMs
 Formats
 Works same as CD-ROM, but bumps are
smaller and packed closer together.
 Contains less error correction information
(better error correction algorithm than CDs.)
 Supports double layer storage, effectively
doubling the storage area.
 Drive does not spin at a constant speed
which allows a constant data rate stream.
Blu-ray Disc (BD)
 Developed by Blu-ray Disc Association (BDA)
 Recording, rewriting and playback of HD
 Blue-violet laser
 BD formats planned
– BD-R
 On a 25GB disc
– 2 hours high-definition television (HDTV)
– 13 hours standard-definition television (SDTV)
– Take about 1 hour and 33 minutes
Blu-ray Disc

 CD capable of storing 27GB.

 Uses blue laser as opposed to current red
 Blue laser can focus on smaller area,
allowing more information to be stored in a
given area.
Blu-Ray Disc
Phase Change Recording

Type of recording technology

 Enables the disks to be written, erased, and rewritten
 Developed in late 1960s by Stanford Ovshinsky
 Involves a high intensity laser beam heating a
recording layer
 Alternate between an amorphous (formless) and a
crystalline state
Phase Change Recording
 Alloy recording layer is a mix of silver, indium,
antimony and tellurium
 After heating to one particular temperature, the alloy
will become crystalline
 To erase or write over recorded data, the higher
temperature laser is used, which results in the
amorphous form
 Used for both CD-RW, DVD-RW, DVD+RW and
Blu ray vs DVD Capacity
DVD Vs Blu-Ray Construction
Benefit of using a blue-violet laser (405nm)
 Higher storage capacity
– Shorter wavelength than a red laser (650nm)
– Focus the laser spot with greater precision
– Data can be packed more tightly and stored in less space

 Faster data transfer rate

 Support more formats of video compression
Blu-ray vs. HD DVD vs. DVD
Parameters BD HD-DVD DVD
Storage capacity 25GB/50GB 15GB/30GB 4.7GB/9.4GB
Laser Blue-violet laser Red laser
Laser wavelength 405nm 405nm 650nm

Numerical Aperture (NA) 0.85 0.60 0.60

Protection layer 0.1mm 0.6mm 0.6mm
Data transfer rate 36Mbps 36Mbps 11.08Mbps
Video compression MPEG-2 MPEG-2 MPEG-2
VC-1 VC-1
BD Disc and Recorder
 Sony BDZ-S77
 $2,150
 $26 per disc
 Available in Japan only
– HDTV is not well established
 Wait until 2006-2007
 High-definition or High Density DVD
 Also known as Advanced Optical Disc (AOD)
 Proposed by NEC/Toshiba
 Use the original DVD physical format
 Depend on new video encoding technology
 Use blue or violet lasers to read smaller pits
 Backward-compatible with DVD
 Demand continues to grow.
 Cost per megabyte is decreasing.
 DVDs replacing older technologies.
 Convenience, cost, acceptance, and capacity
will drive new products.
 Several new technologies on the horizon,
providing reduced sizes with increased
capacities and data transfer rates.
 Websites