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GSM - RADIO INTERFACE

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GSM - RADIO INTERFACE
IN THIS PRESENTATION

• Radio Interface • Frequency Bands & Specifications
• Multiple Access Method FDMA & TDMA

• FDMA /TDMA Frame Representation
• Logical Channels : Traffic & Control • Operational Concepts • Other Salient Features of RF I/F- DTX, Time Alignment Diversity, Fr. Hopping, Power Control.
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Communication - Mobile

Subscriber Line (2W)

Inter-Exchange Junction

BSC BTS
Telephone Exchange Mobile Switching Centre (MSC)

MS

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Interference -.GSM RADIO INTERFACE • Most Important Interface • Full Compatibility between mobile stations of various Manufacturers & Networks of different vendors to help roaming • To increase spectral efficiency -.Large number of simultaneous calls in a given bandwidth -.Use of Interference Reduction Techniques 4 .Frequency Reuse -.

GSM Uplink & Downlink • Frequency Bands GSM 900 Mhz DCS 1800 MHz B T S 5 .

25 MHz GSM 1800 ( DCS ) : Mobile to Cell (UP-LINK) 1710 to 1785 MHz Cell to Mobile (DOWN -LINK) .GSM Specifications RF Spectrum : GSM 900 Mobile to BS (UP-LINK) 890 to 915 MHz BS to Mobile (DOWN -LINK) .1805 to 1880 MHz Bandwidth .75 MHz 6 .935 to 960 MHz Bandwidth .

200 kHz .124 Access Method Modulation Method Transmission Rate Speech Coding .GMSK .833 Kbps .5 Kbps 7 .TDMA/FDMA .45 MHz .GSM Specifications Carrier Separation Duplex Distance No.270. of RF Carriers .Full rate 13 Kbps Half rate 6.

8 ..8 891. Freq 890.6 890.GSM .4 890.2 890.8 Mhz.MULTIPLE ACCESS • GSM uses both FDMA & TDMA • FDMA Access along Frequency axis • Each RF carrier 200khz apart • Total 124 RF Channels available..0 914. One or more carrier assigned to each base station 1 2 3 4 5 6 124 …….

• Frequency for any ARFCN ( n) can be calculated from : F up-link (n) = 890.2 +0. 9 .2* ( n-1 ) MHz Here 124. • Thus for practical purposes only 122 RF Carriers are available.MULTIPLE ACCESS • Absolute Radio Freq Carrier Number (ARFCN) 1 and 124 not used until it is co-ordinated with Non -GSM operators in adjacent freq.GSM .2* ( n-1 ) MHz F down-link (n) = 935.2 +0. bands.

2 935.4 890.2 890.4 960 2 2 935.6 (MHz) 935 25 MHz 0 1 Base to Mobile 935.6 200 kHz 45MHz 200 kHz Channel layout and frequency bands of operation 10 .GSM FDMA 890 25 MHz 0 915 1 Mobile to Base 890.

GSM TDMA Amplitude 45 MHz 7 8 5 6 2 1 3 4 2 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 Frequency F1 (Cell Rx) F2 F1’ F2’ (Cell transmit) Typical TDMA/ FDMA frame structure 11 .

This calculates as 50X 260 = 13 kbps.In GSM speech coding a block of 20 ms is encoded in one set of 260 bits.This provides speech quality which is acceptable for mobile telephony and comparable with wire-line PSTN phones. Thus GSM speech coder produces a bit rate of 13 kbps per subscriber.GSM Digital Voice Transmission Speech Coding . . . 12 .

Speech Coding Speech Signal 20 ms 01100011000111110011100 Speech Code Parameters like tone.pitch are transmitted Sampling=50 times/sec instead of 8000 of 260 bits each overall bitrate= 50x260x8 subs=104kbps 13 .length of tone.

Channel Coding 3 parity bits Very important bits Block coder 53 bits 1:2 Convolutional Coder 4 Tail bits 378 bits 456 260 bits 50 132 Important bits 78 Not so important bits Detection & correction of errors 14 .

Interleaving .GSM Digital Voice Transmission Channel Coding . 15 .In one burst one block of 57 bits from one sample and another block from another sample are sent together.These 456 bits for every 20 ms of speech are interleaved forming eight blocks of 57 bits each. .It uses 260 bits from speech coding as input and outputs 456 encoded bits.

Each TS of TDMA frame is 0. .25 bits are transmitted. . .Additional bits as training sequence added to basic speech/data.25 bits time.One burst contains only 148 bits. is empty and is called Guard Period ( GP ).GP enables MS/BTS to “ramp up” and “ ramp down”. bringing overall total to 592 bits.GSM Digital Voice Transmission Burst Formatting To counteract the problems encountered in radio path: .577 ms long and during this time 156. 8. Rest of the space. 16 .Total of 136 bits added. .

Interleaving & Burst Formatting 1st Sample of 20 ms speech 456 bits Sample 1 D D D D D D D D D D D 2nd Sample of 20 ms speech 456 bits Sample 2 D D D D D 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Stream of Time Slots 3 57 1 26 1 57 3 8.25 Normal Burst 17 .

GSM Speech to Radio waves Analog Analog Speech Coding Channel Coding Speech Decoding Channel Decoding Interleaving Burst formatting De-interleaving Burst formatting Ciphering Modulation 200kHz BW Deciphering Demodulation 200kHz BW 19 .

8 891.0 891.2 890.8 20 .TIME FDMA/TDMA Scheme BP2 BP1 BP8 BP7 BP6 BP5 BP4 BP3 BP2 BP1 890.4 890.2 BURST F R A M E FREQ MHz 915.6 890.0 890.

25 GP T FCCH Burst 3 CC SMS SS 57 T CM Encrypted 1 S 26 Training 1 S 57 Encrypted 3 T 8.25 GP Normal Burst 21 .3 CC SMS T CM SS 142 Fixed Bits 3 8.

.Discontinuous Transmission.Diversity. . 22 .Timing Advance.Frequency Hopping.Control of Transmitted Power.GSM – RF INTERFACE Other Salient Features Of GSM RF INTERFACE: . . .

23 .POWER CONTROL • To minimize co-channel interference and to conserve power. • Mobile decides that power level is acceptable using bit errors ratio. both the Mobile and BTS operate at the lowest power level that will maintain an acceptable signal quality.

comfort noise is generated trying to match the characteristics of background noise. • To avoid this. so turning the transmitter off can save power.e. due to digital transmission. i. • While transmitter is off. 24 . the receiving end will hear a total silence. very accurate Voice Activity Detector should be used. • In order to distinguish voice and background noise.DISCONTINUOUS TRANSMISSION (DTX) • The idea is based on the fact that a person speaks less than 40% of time in normal conversation.

25 .DISCONTINUOUS RECEPTION (DRX) • While being in Idle Mobile Station has to listen only to Paging Channel. that uses almost no power.

• Generation of Comfort Noise at receiver to avoid the feeling of the set being dead. • Needs Voice activity detection.DISCONTINUOUS TRANSMISSION (DTX) • Speech activity only 40% of time. 26 . • Determination of voice threshold vis-à-vis noise. • Annoying clicks/inefficient DTX.

.GSM – RF Interface Timing Alignment : . TDMA Frame 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TS3 TS2 B –on TS2 A –on TS3 27 BTS .Each MS on call is allocated a timeslot on TDMA frame.Large distance between BTS and MS causes the problem. .The problem occurs when the information transmitted by MS does not reach BTS on allocated timeslot.

In GSM systems maximum 63 bit-times can be used.MS instructed to do its transmission certain bit-times earlier or later – to reach its timeslot at BTS in right time. .GSM – RF Interface Timing Advance : ( To counteract problem of Time Alignment ) . .This limits the GSM cell size to 35 Km radius. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Time Start Sending 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 28 .

Polarization Diversity .Probability of both of them being affected by a deep fading dip at same time is low.Mounting two receiver antenna physically separated a distance. .Dual polarized antenna – vertical and horizontal arrays. Tx Tx Rx Rx (A) Rx ( B) 29 No Diversity Antenna Diversity .At 900 MHz with antenna spacing of 5-6 m we get 3 db gain. .GSM – RF Interface Antenna Diversity : Space Diversity .

SCH .BCCH are not hopped • Algorithm : Cyclic or pseudorandom 30 .FREQUENCY HOPPING • Change of frequency after every frame in a pre-determined manner • SFH improves performance in multi-path fading • Provides interference diversity • Decreases required C/I • Mandatory for MS when requested by BS • FCCH .

Time Alignment Diversity.DTX.GSM . Fr. Power Control.RADIO INTERFACE SUMMARY • Radio Interface • Frequency Bands & Specifications • Multiple Access Method FDMA & TDMA • FDMA /TDMA Frame Representation • Logical Channels Traffic & Control • Operational Concepts • Other Salient Features of RF I/F. 31 . Hopping.

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