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# BY: P.V.Nagendra Kumar B.Vamsi Krishna C.

Bhavana

CONTENTS:
What limits the power in transmission lines How to increase power limits Introduction to UPFC Shunt compensation Series compensation UPFC operation Advantages of UPFC

## Thermal limits Loop flows Stability limits

Transient stability Steady state stability Frequency collapse Voltage limits

## August 14,2003-black out in united states.

Stability: Ability of the system to maintain synchronism Steady state stability: small disturbances Transient stability: sudden-disturbances

Using FACTS devices(flexible ac transmission) -Increases power transfer capability -provide direct control of power flow. -increases loading capability of lines to their thermal limits. -increases system security through raising transient stability limit.

## Shunt device used for

Improve Voltage Profile Control Power flow and Improve Transient Stability of Power System

Voltage Regulation: Under light loads: To minimize or completely diminish line overvoltage Under heavy loads: To maintain certain voltage levels

## P = (V1V2) sin / X Q = V1(V1 V2cos) / X

Power Flow Control: When system voltage is low: generates reactive power (STATCOM capacitive). When system voltage is high: absorbs reactive power (STATCOM inductive). In steady state operation: V2=V1 (=0) so only reactive power is flowing (P=0). If V2< V1, Q is flowing from V1 to V2 : It absorbs reactive power

If V2 > V1, Q is flowing from V2 to V1:It generating reactive power The amount of reactive power is given by Q = (V1(V1 V2 )) / X. Advantages: Has no inertia and Does not significantly alter the existing system impedance

If a dc storage battery or other dc voltage source were used to replace the dc capacitor, the controller can exchange real and reactive power with the transmission system, extending its region of operation from two to four quadrants.

P,Q flows are positive : Power is going into the device P,Q flows are negative : Power is going out of the device

What is sssc? Types and Parts Approach for sssc -valves -PWM use of sssc Analogous to ideal syn. Voltage source