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Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
WCDMA Handover
Principle
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page1
Foreword
 Why mobile systems need handover?
 It is decided by the characters of mobile system:
 The mobility of UE
 The mobile system is composed by cells which the
coverage ability is limited.
 Providing the continuous service in mobile system is the
basic element in QoS.
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page2
Objectives
 Upon completion of this course, you will be able to:
 The basic definitions of Handover
 The algorithms of handover decision
 The handover flow
 The parameters of handover
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page3
Contents
1. Introduction of Handover
2. Measurement of Handover
3. The Basic Handovers

Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page4
The Purpose of Handover
 Providing the continuous service in mobile system is the basic
element in QoS.
 The load balance: sharing the resource
 The hierarchy divided by speed and service: high efficiency of
using resource
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The Basic Concepts of Handover
 Active Set
 Monitored Set
 Detected set
 Event reporting
 Event reporting to Periodic reporting
 Periodic reporting
 Radio Link (RL)
 Radio Link Set (RLS)
 Combination way:
 maximum ratio combination
 selection combination
 The soft handover gain
 CPICH
 Soft handover, softer handover, hard handover
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The Categories of Handover


 According to the signaling characters:
 Soft handover (softer handover)
 Hard handover
 According to the properties of source cell and target cell
 Intra-frequency handover
 Inter-frequency handover
 Inter-system handover (UMTS <-> GSM)
 According to the purpose of handover
 Based on Coverage
 Based on Load (Optional)
 Based on mobility of UE (Optional)
 Based on Service (Optional)
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The Characters of Different Handovers
Item Soft Handover Hard Handover
The numbers of RL in
active set after handover
Several One
Interruption during
handover
No Yes
The frequencies of cells Only happened in
Intra-frequency cells
Can be happened in Intra-
frequency cells or Inter-
frequency cells
 Comparison between soft handover and hard handover:
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The Characters of Different Handovers
 Comparison between soft handover and softer handover
 During softer handover, the uplink signaling are combined in
NodeB by maximum ratio combination, but during soft handover
they are combined in RNC by selection combination
 Compare to later one, the maximum ration combination can get
more gain. So the performance of maximum ration combination
is better
 Since softer handover is completed in NodeB, it do not consume
transport resource of Iub
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RNC
NodeB 2 NodeB 1
Soft Handover
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RNC (WFMR)
NodeB
Softer Handover
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Hard Handover
RNC
NodeB 2 NodeB 1
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Three Steps of Handover
Decision
Execute
Measurement
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Questions
 The differences among Soft handover, softer handover and
hard handover
 Typical application scenarios
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Summary
 This chapter focus on the purpose of handovers and the
categories of handover in WCDMA.
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page15
Contents
1. Introduction of Handover
2. Measurement of Handover
3. The Basic Handovers

Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page16
Contents
2. Measurement of Handover
2.1 Measurement control and measurement report
2.2 The basic definitions of measurement
2.3 Measurement event
2.4 Compressed mode



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Measurement Control, normal case
UE UTRAN
MEASUREMENT CONTROL
Measurement Control
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Measurement Control
Measurement Control, normal case
UE UTRAN
MEASUREMENT CONTROL
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page19
Measurement Control, normal case
UE UTRAN
MEASUREMENT REPORT
Measurement Report
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Contents
2. Measurement of Handover
2.1 Measurement control and measurement report
2.2 The basic definitions of measurement
2.3 Measurement event
2.4 Compressed mode



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The Basic Concepts of
Measurement
 The measurement values of Handover
 Soft handover and Intra-frequency hard handover : CPICH RSCP, CPICH
Ec/N0, Path loss
 Inter-frequency:CPICH RSCP, CPICH Ec/N0
 Inter-system:GSM Carrier RSSI, BSIC Identification, BSIC Reconfirmation
 The reporting methods of measurement
 Periodic reporting
 Event reporting
 The events of reporting
 Intra-frequency events:1A,1B,1C,1D,1F
 Inter-frequency events :2D,2F,2B,2C
 Inter-system events :3A,3C
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Measurement Model
Layer 1
filtering
Layer 3
filtering
Evaluation
of reporting
criteria
A
D
B C
C'
parameters parameters
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Reporting Criterion
), 2 / ( 10 ) 1 ( 10 10
1
1
a Best
N
i
i New
H R LogM W M Log W LogM
A
÷ + · · ÷ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
· · s ·
¿
=
), 2 / ( 10 ) 1 ( 10 10
1
1
a Best
N
i
i New
H R LogM W M Log W LogM
A
÷ ÷ · · ÷ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
· · > ·
¿
=
 Reporting Criterion
 Decision formula: for example, 1A event :
 Path Loss


 Other measurement:



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Key Parameters
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Contents
2. Measurement of Handover
2.1 Measurement control and measurement report
2.2 The basic definitions of measurement
2.3 Measurement event
2.4 Compressed mode



Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page26
Intra-frequency Measurement Events
 Intra-frequency measurement report events are identified with 1X
 1A : A primary pilot channel enters the reporting range. When the active
set of UE is full, UE stops reporting 1A event;
 1B : A primary pilot channel leaves the reporting range;
 1C : The primary pilot channel
 l in a non active set is better than the primary pilot channel in an active
set;
 1D : The best cell changes;
 1E : The measurement value of a primary pilot channel exceeds the
absolute threshold
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Inter-frequency Measurement Events
 Inter-frequency measurement events are identified with 2X
 2B : The estimated quality value of the used frequency is lower
than a certain threshold, and that of the non-used frequency is
higher than a certain threshold;
 2C : The estimated quality value of the non-used frequency is
higher than a certain threshold;
 2D : The estimated quality value of the used frequency is lower
than a certain threshold
 2F : The estimated quality value of the used frequency is
higher than a certain threshold
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Inter-system Measurement Events
 Inter-system measurement events are identified with 3X
 3A : The estimated quality value of the used UTRAN frequency
is lower than a certain threshold, and that of the other system
is higher than a certain threshold
 3C : The estimated quality value of the other system is higher
than a certain threshold
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page29
Contents
2. Measurement of Handover
2.1 Measurement control and measurement report
2.2 The basic definitions of measurement
2.3 Measurement event
2.4 Compressed mode



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The Purpose of Compressed mode
 Purpose
 Measure the inter-frequency cell or inter-system cell under
FDD mode

 Categories
 Downlink compressed
 Uplink compressed
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Compressed Mode Sketch Map
One frame
(10 ms) Transmission gap available for
inter-frequency measurements
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The realization Methods of
Compressed mode
 Realization Methods
 SF/2
 Rate matching/puncturing
 Higher layer scheduling
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Questions
 How many events are there in intra-frequency measurement?
What are they?
 How many events are there in UE internal measurement?
 How many events are there in inter-frequency measurement?
What are they?
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Summary
 This chapter covers intra-frequency measurement, inter-
frequency measurement, inter-system measurement and
UE internal measurement from their definitions and
application scenarios
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Contents
1. Introduction of Handover
2. Measurement of Handover
3. The Basic Handovers

Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page36
Contents
3. The Basic Handovers
3.1 Soft Handover
3.2 Intra-frequency Hard Handover
3.3 Inter-frequency Hard Handover
3.4 Inter-system Hard Handover




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Brief Introduction of Soft Handover
 Characters of Soft Handover
 During handover, UE has several RLs with different cells -
active set
 The handover among different cells which are in same RLS
can be softer handover
 Soft handover:
– Selection combination in uplink
– Maximum combination in downlink
 Softer handover
– Maximum combination in uplink and downlink
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Brief Introduction of Soft Handover
 Advantages
 Soft handover gain
 Load balance
 Decrease the possibility of call drop caused by ping-pong handover
 Disadvantages
 More resource needed in downlink, especially for the code resource of
BE service
 Usually, the gain of downlink power is negative
 When the downlink power from different cells is not balanced, it will
bring side-effect
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Measurement of Soft Handover
 The measurement of soft handover/softer handover
 Measurement value:CPICH RSCP、CPICH Ec/No、Pathloss
 Process of Measurement:Layer 1 filter, Layer 3 filter
 Reporting way
 Periodic reporting
 Event reporting
– Event type:1A、1B、1C、1D、1F
– UE measures the time difference between CFN and SFN
– Reporting rules: trigger condition, Relative threshold, Absolute
threshold, Hysteresis, Time to trigger
 Event reporting to periodic reporting
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The Decision Algorithm of Soft Handover
 Soft/softer handover decision
 1A : Radio Link Addition
 1B : Radio Link Removal
 1C : Combined Radio Link Addition and Removal
 1D : change best cell
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The Execution of Soft Handover
 Soft handover execution
 The update principal of measurement control
 Configure the neighbor cells and the parameters according to best
cell
 RLC mode
 AM mode is used for measurement control
 UM mode is used for measurement report
 The compensation and restriction of soft handover
 From event reporting to periodic reporting
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Soft Handover Flow (add RL)
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Soft Handover Flow (del RL)
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Key Parameters
 Relative threshold
 Time to trigger
 Layer 3 filter coefficient
 Absolute threshold of soft handover
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Contents
3. The Basic Handovers
3.1 Soft Handover
3.2 Intra-frequency Hard Handover
3.3 Inter-frequency Hard Handover
3.4 Inter-system Hard Handover




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Brief Introduction of Intra-frequency Hard
Handover
 Characters
 UE only has one RL with one cell in the process of handover
 Disconnect UE with the original cell, then hand it over to target cell
 The working frequency of source cell and target cell are same
 Advantages
 Enhance the using efficiency of the OVSF code and hardware
resource
 Disadvantages
 High call drop possibility because of the intra-frequency interference
 Application scenarios
 Without Iur interface between two RNCs or the Iur interface jam (only
happened in inter-RNC handover)
 The different strategies can be used for different conditions, such as
code resource condition, the QoS condition and so no
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The Measurement, Decision and Execution
of Intra-frequency Hard Handover
 Measurement
 Similar to soft handover
 Decision
 1D event
 Execution
 UE reports CFN-SFN information
 Synchronization hard handover
 Use the original DOFF value
 Continuous CFN
 UE does not report CFN-SFN information
 The hard handover based on timing
 Re-configure DOFF
 Calculate CFN according to DOFF
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The Measurement, Decision and Execution
of Intra-frequency Hard Handover
 Measurement
 Similar to soft handover
 Decision
 1D event
 Execution
 UE reports CFN-SFN information
 Synchronization hard handover
 Use the original DOFF value
 Continuous CFN
 UE does not report CFN-SFN information
 The hard handover based on timing
 Re-configure DOFF
 Calculate CFN according to DOFF
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Intra-frequency Hard Handover Flow
UE
1.RADIO LINK SETUP REQUEST
Target
NODEB
Source
NODEB
SRNC
2. RADIO LINK SETUP RESPONSE
3.ALCAP establish
4. PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIGURATION
5. RADIO LINK
FAILURE INDICATION
6. PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIGURATION COMPLETE
7. RADIO LINK
DELETION REQUEST
8. RADIO LINK
DELETION RESPONSE
9.ALCAP release
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Key Parameters
 Handover decision threshold based on BE speed
 UE should do soft handover when the speed of BE service is
less than the threshold.
 UE should do intra-frequency hard handover when the speed
of BE service is greater than the threshold.
 The parameters about 1D event
 Time to trigger, hysteresis
 The parameters should be set accord with the Qos
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Contents
3. The Basic Handovers
3.1 Soft Handover
3.2 Intra-frequency Hard Handover
3.3 Inter-frequency Hard Handover
3.4 Inter-system Hard Handover




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The Brief Introduction of Inter-
frequency Hard Handover
 Characters
 The working frequency is different after handover
 The compressed mode needed if the UE only has one receiver
 Usually, the timing re-initiation hard handover is used for hard
handover
 Application scenarios
 Disconnected coverage
 Handover based on load
 Hierarchy cells
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Measurement Values and Events
 The Inter-frequency hard handover measurement values
 Measurement values
 CPICH RSCP、CPICH Ec/N0
 Different handover purpose for different measurement type
 In the edge of carrier coverage: CPICH RSCP
 In the center of carrier coverage: CPICH Ec/No
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Compressed Mode Initiation
 Conditions for measurement initiated
 2D event : The estimated quality value of the used frequency is
lower than a certain threshold
 Conditions for Measurement stopping
 2F event : The estimated quality value of the used frequency is
higher than a certain threshold
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Cells Hierarchy Algorithm Based on
UE Moving Speed
 When UE is in one of the hierarchy cells, the moving speed
estimation algorithm is initiated
 Handover events in a while decides whether the speed of UE
satisfies the current cell hierarchy condition
 UE’s moving speed decided the result
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Decision Algorithm
 The inter-frequency hard handover decision
 The coverage triggers the handover
 2B event:
– the quality in the used frequency is lower than absolute threshold, but
the quality in another non-used frequency is higher than another
absolute threshold.
 The load triggers handover
 2C event:
– the quality in another frequency is higher than an absolute threshold

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Inter-frequency Hard Handover
Signaling Flow
UE
1.RADIO LINK SETUP REQUEST
Target
NODEB
Source
NODEB
SRNC
2. RADIO LINK SETUP RESPONSE
3.ALCAP established
4. PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIGURATION
5. RADIO LINK
FAILURE INDICATION
6. PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIGURATION COMPLETE
7. RADIO LINK
DELETION REQUEST
8. RADIO LINK
DELETION RESPONSE
9.ALCAP released
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Key Parameters (I)
 Inter-frequency coverage handover parameters
 Inter-frequency measurement reporting: periodic reporting or event
reporting
 Inter-frequency measurement values: CPICH Ec/No or CPICH RSCP
 Inter-frequency measurement layer 3 filter coefficient, delay trigger
time and hysteresis
 Inter-frequency initiated and stopped threshold: Considering the
different demands of CPICH Ec/No and CPICH RSCP for PS domain
and CS domain, the different 2D and 2F parameters are configured.
 Inter-frequency handover based on coverage: the quality threshold of
target cell
 Using frequency quality threshold in inter-frequency hard handover
 The minimum access threshold for inter-frequency handover
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Key Parameters (II)
 Inter-frequency handover parameters caused by non-
coverage ability
 Inter-frequency measurement layer 3 filter coefficient, delay
trigger time and hysteresis
 Inter-frequency handover based on non-coverage ability
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Contents
3. The Basic Handovers
3.1 Soft Handover
3.2 Intra-frequency Hard Handover
3.3 Inter-frequency Hard Handover
3.4 Inter-system Hard Handover

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The Brief Introduction of Inter-system
Hard Handover
 Application scenarios
 WCDMA FDD <->GSM
 Characters
 Different radio access technology is used after handover
 Usually, compressed mode should be used to help the
measurement
 Advantages
 For coverage, it can solve the problems from one system to another
system
 For capacity, it can enhance the utilizing efficiency of old
equipments(2G->3G)
 Disadvantages
 The flow is complicated, and it demands higher compatibility for
equipments
 Demands more complicated UE
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Compressed Mode Initiated
 The inter-system measurement (GSM measurement)
 Measurement type:
 GSM Carrier RSSI
 BSIC Identification
 BSIC Reconfirmation
 The process of measurement: layer 1 filter, layer 3 filter
 Measurement reporting
 Event reporting
– 2D Event: initiate GSM measurement
– 2F Event: stop GSM measurement
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Decision Algorithm
 Inter-system handover caused by coverage
 Event reporting:
 3A event:The estimated quality value of the used UTRAN
frequency is lower than a certain threshold, and that of the other
system is higher than a certain threshold
 Periodic reporting:
 Evaluation:According to the periodic reported GSM RSSI
measurement value and the BSIC confirming state of target cell of
GSM system, and meanwhile the UE evaluates the GSM RSSI of
target cell is greater than the absolute threshold, then consider the
cell confirmed by BSIC
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Decision Algorithm
 Inter-system handover caused by non-coverage
 Event reporting
 3C event: The estimated quality value of the other system is
higher than a absolute threshold
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1. Relocation
Required
2. Prepare
Handover
3. Handover
Request
4. Handover
Request Ack
12. Iu Release
Command
13. Iu Release
Complete 14. Send End
Signal Response
5. Prepare
Handover
Response
6. Relocation
Command
7. DCCH : Handover
from UTRAN Command

8. Handover
Detect
9. Handover Complete

10. Handover
Complete
11. Send
End
Signal
Request

UE
Node B SRNC CN MSC BSC
Inter-system Handover Flow
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Key Parameters (I)
 Inter-system handover caused by coverage parameters
 Inter-system measurement initiated and stopped threshold:
Considering the different demands of CPICH Ec/No and CPICH
RSCP for PS domain and CS domain, the different 2D and 2F
parameters are configured
 Inter-system measurement values (2D, 2F)
 CPICH Ec/No
 CPICH RSCP
 BSIC confirmed (Optional)
 Inter-system handover caused by coverage parameters
 configure the GSM RSSI threshold of CS domain and PS domain
separately
 Using inter-system frequency quality handover threshold
 Configure the delay trigger time, hysteresis for each event
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Key Parameters (II)
 Inter-system handover caused by non-coverage
parameters
 The period of inter-system measurement report
 The decision threshold for inter-system handover:
configure the CS, PS, signaling separately
 Time delay trigger : configure BSIC with acknowledged and
unacknowledged mode
 Inter-frequency measurement layer 3 filter coefficient and
hysteresis
 Penalty time
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Questions
 What are the differences between soft handover and softer
handover?
 What is compressed mode?
 Draw out the hard handover signaling flow.
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page69
Summary
 This chapter focus on the basic handovers in WCDMA: soft
handover, softer handover, intra-frequency hard handover,
inter-frequency hard handover and inter-system hard
handover. It also introduced the application scenarios for
these different handovers
 Meanwhile, compressed mode is introduced in this chapter

Thank you
www.huawei.com

Foreword

Why mobile systems need handover?

It is decided by the characters of mobile system:

The mobility of UE The mobile system is composed by cells which the coverage ability is limited.

Providing the continuous service in mobile system is the
basic element in QoS.

Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page1

Objectives

Upon completion of this course, you will be able to:

The basic definitions of Handover The algorithms of handover decision The handover flow The parameters of handover

Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page2

Page3 . Ltd.Contents 1. All rights reserved. Measurement of Handover 3. Introduction of Handover 2. The Basic Handovers Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co..

All rights reserved.. Page4 . Ltd.   The load balance: sharing the resource The hierarchy divided by speed and service: high efficiency of using resource Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co.The Purpose of Handover  Providing the continuous service in mobile system is the basic element in QoS.

. softer handover. Ltd.The Basic Concepts of Handover     Active Set Monitored Set Detected set Event reporting  Event reporting to Periodic reporting     Periodic reporting Radio Link (RL) Radio Link Set (RLS) Combination way:   maximum ratio combination selection combination    The soft handover gain CPICH Soft handover. hard handover Page5 Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved..

Ltd. All rights reserved.. Page6 .The Categories of Handover  According to the signaling characters:   Soft handover (softer handover) Hard handover Intra-frequency handover Inter-frequency handover Inter-system handover (UMTS <-> GSM) Based on Coverage Based on Load (Optional) Based on mobility of UE (Optional) Based on Service (Optional)  According to the properties of source cell and target cell     According to the purpose of handover     Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co.

The Characters of Different Handovers  Comparison between soft handover and hard handover: Soft Handover Several Hard Handover One Item The numbers of RL in active set after handover Interruption during handover The frequencies of cells No Yes Only happened in Can be happened in Intra- Intra-frequency cells frequency cells or Interfrequency cells Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co.. Ltd. All rights reserved. Page7 .

All rights reserved. it do not consume transport resource of Iub Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. So the performance of maximum ration combination is better  Since softer handover is completed in NodeB. but during soft handover they are combined in RNC by selection combination  Compare to later one. Ltd.. the maximum ration combination can get more gain. the uplink signaling are combined in NodeB by maximum ratio combination. Page8 .The Characters of Different Handovers  Comparison between soft handover and softer handover  During softer handover.

Ltd. Page9 . All rights reserved..Soft Handover RNC NodeB 1 NodeB 2 Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co.

Softer Handover RNC (WFMR) NodeB Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved. Ltd. Page10 ..

.Hard Handover RNC NodeB 1 NodeB 2 Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. All rights reserved. Page11 .

All rights reserved.Three Steps of Handover Measurement Decision Execute Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. Page12 ..

Page13 . Ltd. softer handover and hard handover  Typical application scenarios Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co.. All rights reserved.Questions  The differences among Soft handover.

. Page14 .Summary  This chapter focus on the purpose of handovers and the categories of handover in WCDMA. Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved. Ltd.

Measurement of Handover 3. All rights reserved.Contents 1. The Basic Handovers Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co.. Ltd. Introduction of Handover 2. Page15 .

3 Measurement event 2.Contents 2. Measurement of Handover 2.2 The basic definitions of measurement 2. Page16 .1 Measurement control and measurement report 2..4 Compressed mode Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. All rights reserved.

.Measurement Control UE UTRAN MEASUREMENT CONTROL Measurement Control. normal case Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved. Page17 . Ltd.

. Ltd. All rights reserved.Measurement Control UE UTRAN MEASUREMENT CONTROL Measurement Control. normal case Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. Page18 .

normal case Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. Page19 .Measurement Report UE UTRAN MEASUREMENT REPORT Measurement Control. All rights reserved..

4 Compressed mode Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co.2 The basic definitions of measurement 2..1 Measurement control and measurement report 2. All rights reserved. Page20 .3 Measurement event 2. Ltd. Measurement of Handover 2.Contents 2.

2F.2B.3C Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. Path loss Inter-frequency:CPICH RSCP. Page21 .2C Inter-system events :3A.The Basic Concepts of Measurement  The measurement values of Handover  Soft handover and Intra-frequency hard handover : CPICH RSCP.1F Inter-frequency events :2D. All rights reserved.1C.. CPICH Ec/N0. BSIC Reconfirmation    The reporting methods of measurement   Periodic reporting Event reporting  The events of reporting    Intra-frequency events:1A.1B. Ltd. CPICH Ec/N0 Inter-system:GSM Carrier RSSI.1D. BSIC Identification.

All rights reserved.Measurement Model parameters parameters A Layer 1 filtering B Layer 3 filtering C C' Evaluation of reporting criteria D Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. Page22 ..

   i 1    Other measurement: 10  LogM New  NA   W 10  Log  M i   (1  W ) 10  LogM Best  ( R  H 1a / 2). All rights reserved. 1A event : Path Loss 10  LogM New  NA   W 10  Log  M i   (1  W ) 10  LogM Best  ( R  H 1a / 2). Ltd.Reporting Criterion  Reporting Criterion  Decision formula: for example.    i 1  Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. Page23 ..

All rights reserved.Key Parameters Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. Page24 ..

3 Measurement event 2.Contents 2.. All rights reserved. Measurement of Handover 2.1 Measurement control and measurement report 2. Ltd. Page25 .4 Compressed mode Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co.2 The basic definitions of measurement 2.

1C : The primary pilot channel   l in a non active set is better than the primary pilot channel in an active set.Intra-frequency Measurement Events  Intra-frequency measurement report events are identified with 1X  1A : A primary pilot channel enters the reporting range.  1B : A primary pilot channel leaves the reporting range. Page26 . All rights reserved.  1D : The best cell changes. When the active set of UE is full. UE stops reporting 1A event.. 1E : The measurement value of a primary pilot channel exceeds the absolute threshold  Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.

. and that of the non-used frequency is higher than a certain threshold. All rights reserved.   2D : The estimated quality value of the used frequency is lower than a certain threshold 2F : The estimated quality value of the used frequency is higher than a certain threshold  Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. 2C : The estimated quality value of the non-used frequency is higher than a certain threshold. Page27 .Inter-frequency Measurement Events  Inter-frequency measurement events are identified with 2X  2B : The estimated quality value of the used frequency is lower than a certain threshold. Ltd.

Page28 . and that of the other system is higher than a certain threshold  3C : The estimated quality value of the other system is higher than a certain threshold Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co..Inter-system Measurement Events  Inter-system measurement events are identified with 3X  3A : The estimated quality value of the used UTRAN frequency is lower than a certain threshold. Ltd. All rights reserved.

2 The basic definitions of measurement 2. Page29 .3 Measurement event 2.4 Compressed mode Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co..Contents 2.1 Measurement control and measurement report 2. Measurement of Handover 2. Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page30 . Ltd. All rights reserved.The Purpose of Compressed mode  Purpose  Measure the inter-frequency cell or inter-system cell under FDD mode  Categories  Downlink compressed Uplink compressed  Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co..

Compressed Mode Sketch Map One frame (10 ms) Transmission gap available for inter-frequency measurements Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved. Ltd. Page31 ..

All rights reserved. Ltd.. Page32 .The realization Methods of Compressed mode  Realization Methods  SF/2 Rate matching/puncturing Higher layer scheduling   Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co.

Ltd..Questions  How many events are there in intra-frequency measurement? What are they?   How many events are there in UE internal measurement? How many events are there in inter-frequency measurement? What are they? Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved. Page33 .

interfrequency measurement.Summary  This chapter covers intra-frequency measurement. Ltd. All rights reserved. Page34 . inter-system measurement and UE internal measurement from their definitions and application scenarios Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co..

Introduction of Handover 2. Ltd. The Basic Handovers Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. Page35 .Contents 1. All rights reserved. Measurement of Handover 3..

3 Inter-frequency Hard Handover 3.. The Basic Handovers 3.4 Inter-system Hard Handover Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. Page36 .1 Soft Handover 3.2 Intra-frequency Hard Handover 3.Contents 3. All rights reserved.

Brief Introduction of Soft Handover  Characters of Soft Handover  During handover. UE has several RLs with different cells active set  The handover among different cells which are in same RLS can be softer handover  Soft handover: – Selection combination in uplink – Maximum combination in downlink  Softer handover – Maximum combination in uplink and downlink Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. All rights reserved.. Page37 .

Brief Introduction of Soft Handover  Advantages  Soft handover gain Load balance Decrease the possibility of call drop caused by ping-pong handover    Disadvantages  More resource needed in downlink. it will bring side-effect Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. especially for the code resource of BE service  Usually. Page38 . the gain of downlink power is negative  When the downlink power from different cells is not balanced. All rights reserved. Ltd..

Hysteresis. Ltd. . Relative threshold. Absolute threshold.. Layer 3 filter Reporting way    Periodic reporting Event reporting – Event type:1A、1B、1C、1D、1F – UE measures the time difference between CFN and SFN – Reporting rules: trigger condition. Time to trigger   Event reporting to periodic reporting Page39 Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved.Measurement of Soft Handover  The measurement of soft handover/softer handover  Measurement value:CPICH RSCP、CPICH Ec/No、Pathloss Process of Measurement:Layer 1 filter.

All rights reserved.. Page40 .The Decision Algorithm of Soft Handover  Soft/softer handover decision  1A : Radio Link Addition 1B : Radio Link Removal 1C : Combined Radio Link Addition and Removal 1D : change best cell    Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.

The Execution of Soft Handover  Soft handover execution  The update principal of measurement control  Configure the neighbor cells and the parameters according to best cell  RLC mode  AM mode is used for measurement control  UM mode is used for measurement report  The compensation and restriction of soft handover  From event reporting to periodic reporting Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. Page41 .. Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page42 . Ltd..Soft Handover Flow (add RL) Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved.Soft Handover Flow (del RL) Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. Page43 .. Ltd.

Ltd..Key Parameters     Relative threshold Time to trigger Layer 3 filter coefficient Absolute threshold of soft handover Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. Page44 . All rights reserved.

2 Intra-frequency Hard Handover 3.1 Soft Handover 3. The Basic Handovers 3. Ltd.3 Inter-frequency Hard Handover 3.4 Inter-system Hard Handover Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved.. Page45 .Contents 3.

such as code resource condition. then hand it over to target cell The working frequency of source cell and target cell are same Enhance the using efficiency of the OVSF code and hardware resource  Advantages   Disadvantages  High call drop possibility because of the intra-frequency interference Without Iur interface between two RNCs or the Iur interface jam (only happened in inter-RNC handover)  Application scenarios   The different strategies can be used for different conditions. All rights reserved. .. Ltd. the QoS condition and so no Page46 Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co.Brief Introduction of Intra-frequency Hard Handover  Characters    UE only has one RL with one cell in the process of handover Disconnect UE with the original cell.

Ltd. All rights reserved.The Measurement. . Decision and Execution of Intra-frequency Hard Handover  Measurement  Similar to soft handover 1D event UE reports CFN-SFN information    Decision   Execution   Synchronization hard handover Use the original DOFF value Continuous CFN The hard handover based on timing Re-configure DOFF Calculate CFN according to DOFF Page47  UE does not report CFN-SFN information    Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co..

The Measurement, Decision and Execution of Intra-frequency Hard Handover

Measurement

Similar to soft handover 1D event UE reports CFN-SFN information
 

Decision

Execution

Synchronization hard handover Use the original DOFF value Continuous CFN The hard handover based on timing Re-configure DOFF Calculate CFN according to DOFF
Page48

UE does not report CFN-SFN information
  

Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Intra-frequency Hard Handover Flow
UE Target NODEB Source NODEB
1.RADIO LINK SETUP REQUEST 2. RADIO LINK SETUP RESPONSE

SRNC

3.ALCAP establish
4. PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIGURATION 5. RADIO LINK FAILURE INDICATION 6. PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIGURATION COMPLETE 7. RADIO LINK DELETION REQUEST 8. RADIO LINK DELETION RESPONSE

9.ALCAP release

Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page49

Key Parameters

Handover decision threshold based on BE speed

UE should do soft handover when the speed of BE service is less than the threshold.

UE should do intra-frequency hard handover when the speed of BE service is greater than the threshold.

The parameters about 1D event

Time to trigger, hysteresis The parameters should be set accord with the Qos

Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page50

The Basic Handovers 3.. All rights reserved. Ltd.3 Inter-frequency Hard Handover 3.Contents 3.4 Inter-system Hard Handover Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co.1 Soft Handover 3.2 Intra-frequency Hard Handover 3. Page51 .

the timing re-initiation hard handover is used for hard handover  Application scenarios    Disconnected coverage Handover based on load Hierarchy cells Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. Page52 .The Brief Introduction of Interfrequency Hard Handover  Characters    The working frequency is different after handover The compressed mode needed if the UE only has one receiver Usually. Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Page53 .Measurement Values and Events  The Inter-frequency hard handover measurement values  Measurement values  CPICH RSCP、CPICH Ec/N0  Different handover purpose for different measurement type  In the edge of carrier coverage: CPICH RSCP In the center of carrier coverage: CPICH Ec/No  Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. All rights reserved..

Page54 .Compressed Mode Initiation  Conditions for measurement initiated  2D event : The estimated quality value of the used frequency is lower than a certain threshold  Conditions for Measurement stopping  2F event : The estimated quality value of the used frequency is higher than a certain threshold Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co.. Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page55 .Cells Hierarchy Algorithm Based on UE Moving Speed  When UE is in one of the hierarchy cells. the moving speed estimation algorithm is initiated  Handover events in a while decides whether the speed of UE satisfies the current cell hierarchy condition  UE’s moving speed decided the result Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. Ltd.  The load triggers handover  2C event: – the quality in another frequency is higher than an absolute threshold Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co.Decision Algorithm  The inter-frequency hard handover decision  The coverage triggers the handover  2B event: – the quality in the used frequency is lower than absolute threshold. Page56 .. but the quality in another non-used frequency is higher than another absolute threshold.

RADIO LINK SETUP RESPONSE 3.ALCAP established 4. PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIGURATION 5. All rights reserved.ALCAP released Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. Page57 .Inter-frequency Hard Handover Signaling Flow UE Target NODEB Source NODEB SRNC 1. Ltd. RADIO LINK DELETION RESPONSE 9.. PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIGURATION COMPLETE 7.RADIO LINK SETUP REQUEST 2. RADIO LINK DELETION REQUEST 8. RADIO LINK FAILURE INDICATION 6.

Ltd. Page58 .Key Parameters (I)  Inter-frequency coverage handover parameters  Inter-frequency measurement reporting: periodic reporting or event reporting Inter-frequency measurement values: CPICH Ec/No or CPICH RSCP Inter-frequency measurement layer 3 filter coefficient. All rights reserved. Inter-frequency handover based on coverage: the quality threshold of target cell Using frequency quality threshold in inter-frequency hard handover The minimum access threshold for inter-frequency handover       Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. delay trigger time and hysteresis Inter-frequency initiated and stopped threshold: Considering the different demands of CPICH Ec/No and CPICH RSCP for PS domain and CS domain.. the different 2D and 2F parameters are configured.

All rights reserved.. Page59 . Ltd.Key Parameters (II)  Inter-frequency handover parameters caused by noncoverage ability  Inter-frequency measurement layer 3 filter coefficient. delay trigger time and hysteresis  Inter-frequency handover based on non-coverage ability Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co.

.1 Soft Handover 3. The Basic Handovers 3.4 Inter-system Hard Handover Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.3 Inter-frequency Hard Handover 3. All rights reserved.Contents 3. Page60 .2 Intra-frequency Hard Handover 3.

it can enhance the utilizing efficiency of old equipments(2G->3G) The flow is complicated. All rights reserved. Ltd. it can solve the problems from one system to another system For capacity.The Brief Introduction of Inter-system Hard Handover  Application scenarios  WCDMA FDD <->GSM Different radio access technology is used after handover Usually. and it demands higher compatibility for equipments Demands more complicated UE Page61  Characters    Advantages    Disadvantages   Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co.. compressed mode should be used to help the measurement For coverage. .

Page62 . All rights reserved..Compressed Mode Initiated  The inter-system measurement (GSM measurement)  Measurement type:  GSM Carrier RSSI BSIC Identification BSIC Reconfirmation    The process of measurement: layer 1 filter. layer 3 filter Measurement reporting   Event reporting – 2D Event: initiate GSM measurement – 2F Event: stop GSM measurement Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.

. and that of the other system is higher than a certain threshold  Periodic reporting:  Evaluation:According to the periodic reported GSM RSSI measurement value and the BSIC confirming state of target cell of GSM system. Ltd.Decision Algorithm  Inter-system handover caused by coverage  Event reporting:  3A event:The estimated quality value of the used UTRAN frequency is lower than a certain threshold. then consider the cell confirmed by BSIC Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. Page63 . and meanwhile the UE evaluates the GSM RSSI of target cell is greater than the absolute threshold. All rights reserved.

. Page64 . Ltd. All rights reserved.Decision Algorithm  Inter-system handover caused by non-coverage  Event reporting 3C event: The estimated quality value of the other system is higher than a absolute threshold  Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co.

All rights reserved.. Send End Signal Response Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. Iu Release Command 13. Prepare Handover MSC BSC 3. Handover Request 4. DCCH : Handover from UTRAN Command 5.Inter-system Handover Flow UE Node B SRNC CN 1. Ltd. Handover Request Ack 6. Page65 . Prepare Handover Response 8. Handover Complete 12. Handover Detect 9. Iu Release Complete 11. Relocation Command 7. Send End Signal Request 14. Relocation Required 2. Handover Complete 10.

the different 2D and 2F parameters are configured Inter-system measurement values (2D.. All rights reserved.Key Parameters (I)  Inter-system handover caused by coverage parameters  Inter-system measurement initiated and stopped threshold: Considering the different demands of CPICH Ec/No and CPICH RSCP for PS domain and CS domain. Page66 . 2F)    CPICH Ec/No CPICH RSCP   BSIC confirmed (Optional) Inter-system handover caused by coverage parameters  configure the GSM RSSI threshold of CS domain and PS domain separately   Using inter-system frequency quality handover threshold Configure the delay trigger time. hysteresis for each event Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.

Ltd. . signaling separately   Time delay trigger : configure BSIC with acknowledged and unacknowledged mode  Inter-frequency measurement layer 3 filter coefficient and hysteresis  Penalty time Page67 Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved.Key Parameters (II)  Inter-system handover caused by non-coverage parameters  The period of inter-system measurement report The decision threshold for inter-system handover: configure the CS.. PS.

Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co.Questions  What are the differences between soft handover and softer handover?   What is compressed mode? Draw out the hard handover signaling flow. Ltd.. All rights reserved. Page68 .

inter-frequency hard handover and inter-system hard handover. All rights reserved. intra-frequency hard handover.Summary  This chapter focus on the basic handovers in WCDMA: soft handover. compressed mode is introduced in this chapter Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. softer handover. Page69 . It also introduced the application scenarios for these different handovers  Meanwhile..

huawei.com .Thank you www.

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