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Density

Remember that density is the mass of one cubic centimetre (or cubic metre) of a substance.
So for example, gold has a density of 19.3 g/cm3. This means one cubic centimetre (cm3) of gold has a mass of 19.3 grams (or one cubic metre of gold has a mass of 19300 kg)

kg/m3 kg

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Density (g/cm3) =

mass(g) volume(cm3)
m3

Or using the formula triangle:

m DxV

Density of regular shapes


volume = length x width x height
height width

length

density = mass/volume

mass using a scale


http://www.youtube.com/watch?gl=IE&feature=related&hl=enGB&v=14nahP_FVnM

Precision and Accuracy


Precise High number of significent figures. Repeated measurements are similar Accurate Near to the real value

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Density of liquids
Volume

Mass of liquid

Mass of liquid and cylinder

Mass of cylinder

Density = mass/volume

Density of irregular shapes (1)

Difference in level gives the volume of the shape

mass

Density = mass/volume

Density of irregular shapes (2)

mass Displacement can volume of object

Density = mass/volume

Pressure
N

N/m2 or Pa

Pressure = Force Area Can you


copy this please? m2

An example
A woman of weight 600N has a total shoe area of 150 cm2 and a man of weight 750 N has a total shoe area of 360 cm2. What is the pressure beneath their feet?
Angelina pressure = force/area = 600/150 = 4 N/cm2 Brad pressure = force/area = 750/360 = 2.1 N/cm2

The pressure acts in all directions


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Pressure and depth

Pressure increases with depth (P = gh) The pressure acts in all directions

Pressure difference between top and bottom = gh = 1000 kg/m3x9.8x0.2 = 1960 N/m2

0.2 m

Draw these sentences!


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. The particles in a solid are close packed. The particles in a solid are in regular positions vibrating around a fixed point. The particles in a liquid are also close packed. The particles in a liquid also vibrate and move around randomly. The particles in a gas are far apart. The particles in a gas are moving very quickly. For the same substance (e.g. water), the particles are the same size in the solid, liquid or gaseous forms. Mr Porter is the worlds best science teacher.

Solids
Fixed shape Cannot flow Difficult to compress Generally dense

Liquids
Shape can change Can flow Not easy to compress Generally dense

Gases
Shape can change Can flow Easy to compress Low density

Changes of state
.

Brownian motion Fat droplets in milk


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Brownian Motion

Einstein's Explanation of Brownian Motion

http://www.practicalph

.
Brownian motion is the seemingly random movement of particles suspended in a fluid (i.e. a liquid or gas). It is due to the instantaneous imbalance in the combined forces exerted by collisions of the particle with the much smaller liquid molecules surrounding it.

Pressure in a gas
Collisions of the gas particles with the side of a container give rise to a force, which averaged of billions of collisions per second macroscopically is measured as the pressure of the gas

PHET!
http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/gasproperties

Pressure versus temperature (at constant volume)


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P/T = constant

P1/T1 = P2/T2
The temperature MUST be in kelvin
This is only true for a constant mass of gas at constant volume.

At -273C, P = 0!!
.

Absolute/Kelvin temperature and Celsius


T (in Kelvin) = T (in degrees Celcius) + 273

Kelvin Temperature
The kelvin Temperature is proportional to the average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance.
Note that they are not all travelling at the same speed.

Temperature
The hotter the temperature, the faster the average speed of the particles

Note that they are not all travelling at the same speed.

pV = constant
p1V1 = p2V2 (at constant temp)
This is only true for a constant mass of gas at constant temperature.