The Industrial Revolution

-Key Concepts-

I. The “Other Half” of the “Dual Revolution”
A revolution recognized by 1820 Changes occurred rather suddenly Changes in the workplace In 1860, Britain produced 20% of the entire world’s output of industrial goods Two “caveats” --scope of the revolution --impact of the revolution

II. The Essential Nature of the Industrial Revolution Dates vary according to nation 18th century origins --expanding Atlantic economy --flourishing English agriculture --effective central bank and credit system --stable and predictable government --mobile rural wage earners .

The Essential Nature of the Industrial Revolution (cont) Fundamental nature = adaptation and change Continuous nature of adaptation—a “permanent” revolution Impact of the industrial revolution Beginnings in Great Britain Pre-industrial cottage industry .II.

III. A Case Study: Cotton Manufacturing in Manchester Great location By-product of overseas trade --1 million bags of cotton imported into Liverpool in 1825 Tremendous opportunity New Technology .

James Hargreaves’ “Spinning Jenny” (1765) .

Richard Arkwright’s Water Frame (1769) .

James Watt’s Steam Engine (1790’s) .

freeing the factory to be located in the most economical location .Significance of the Steam Engine Requires a specialized facility for its use near a ready source of coal Changed the location of factories.

Economic Explosion Mixed with Fear Availability of cotton clothing to all Temporary bottleneck means higher wages for British weavers --Edmund Cartwright’s power loom (1785) The cityscape of Manchester was dramatically transformed by 1800 New machines and factories were both fascinating and horrifying .IV.

V. The “Crowning” Invention: The Railroad The world’s first railway line ran from Manchester to Liverpool The first locomotive = The “Rocket” (1830) Revolution in land transportation = dropping prices Laborers shift to the city and factories Cultural changes produced A “feedback” mechanism .

The Invention of a Free Market Transportation advances broke down traditional local markets Significance of economic freedom --abolition of the Corn Laws in 1846 A free market in labor The main goal = profit Praise for the free market Criticism: A sense of destruction and alienation .VI.

VII. The Industrial Revolution on the Continent Industrialize in a different pattern than Britain Later industrialization as you move east Entered industrialization at an advanced stage Railroads and banks were instrumental “State-managed capitalism” --Friedrich List’s Zollverein .

Continental Industrialization (cont) Delayed industrialization was more explosive Process of industrialization is far from automatic --Competition from cheap British goods --Complicated technology --Expensive technology --Shortage of laborers --Authorities suspicious at first .VII.

VIII. The New Working Class Who were they? A group with genuine hesitation --initial reluctance --incomplete conversion The significance of kinship ties Slow evolution in some kinds of manufacturing employment .

1830’s and 1840’s . 1799 --1834 attempt at a national labor union by Robert Owen --Chartist movement. The New Working Class (cont) Early attempts to organize workers --Combination Acts.VIII.

The New Working Class (cont) Working conditions --long hours --unbroken routine -.VIII.“Separate Spheres” for married and single women Labor Discipline --fines --low wages --Thomas Malthus --David Ricardo and the “Iron Law of Wages” .

VIII. The New Working Class (cont) Bells “Speed up and stretch out” Employment of women and children Subcontracting Subjected to real danger The notion of “hands” .

IX. Living Conditions in New Factory Cities The symbolism of the “East End” Enormous population shifts Problems of disease. alcoholism and crime Occupied “row houses” near factories No rise in “real” wages until after 1850 Middle-class reform efforts --leads to vote for women .

A “Divided City” “West End” = winners of the industrial revolution “East End” = losers of the industrial revolution Urban geography displayed the extremes of industrial capitalism .X.

XI. Symbol of Industrial Success: The Crystal Palace The Great London Exhibition of 1851 Intended to show off the industrial might of Great Britain The need for a special building to house the exhibition --Joseph Paxton Construction problems: light and speed The answer: a “machine building” .

The “Crystal Palace” (cont) “Softening” the industrial design The popularity of the exhibition A variety of exhibits --Grandest spectacle was the Machinery Court The significance of “period revivalism” used for the exhibits .XI.

orderly world .XI. The “Crystal Palace” (cont) The Crystal Palace as a vision of the future—a “haunting modern dream” Its transparency symbolized a sense of limitlessness—no boundaries Became the basis for modern architecture Ambivalence for a controlled.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful