The Sustainable Energy Challenge

OufIine
· fhe choIIenges: oiI, fhe economy ond corbon dioxide
· whof is susfoinobiIify7
· susfoinobIe energy oIfernofives ond roodbIocks
· UIC Summer Insfifufe on SusfoinobiIify ond Energy
Colloquium
Center for Energy Efficient Materials
University of California Santa Barbara
November 2, 2011
0eorge Crobfree
Deporfmenfs of Physics, EIecfricoI ond MechonicoI Engineering
Universify of IIIinois of Chicogo
MoferioIs Science Division
Argonne MofionoI Loborofory
ackground Reading
5ysicsworld.com
October 2009
George Crabtree and Jon Sarrao
Controlling the Functionality
of Materials for Sustainable Energy
George Crabtree
Jon Sarrao
ANNUAL REVÌEW OF
CONDENSED MATTER
PHYSÌCS
October 2010
tt55ysicsworld.comcws
article5rint0527
tt5www.annualreviews.orgourn
alconmat5ys
tt5www.americanenergyinnovation.org
The Problem: Dependence on Imported Oil
find oIfernofives fo imporfed oiI
biofueIs, eIecfricify, soIor fueIs
UnpredicfobIe suppIy
fhreofens
economy, IifesfyIe, nofionoI securify
Cosf fo economy
$3b0 8/yr of currenf prices
fronsferred fo foreign oiI
producers
tt5tonto.eia.doe.govenergy_in_briefforeign_oil_de5endence.cfm
25
20
15
10
5
0
1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000
M
i
l
l
i
o
n

b
a
r
r
e
l
s

5
e
r

d
a
y
consum5tion
5roduction
US Oil
US EÌA
The Problem: Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change
/3 of corbon dioxide emissions come
from power pIonfs ond oufos
IPCC Fourfh Assessmenf 007
hffp://www.ipcc.ch/grophics/gr-or4-syr.hfm SPMI
Permonenf chonges in weofher pofferns,
ogricuIfuroI nefworks ond coosfoI geogrophy
Cosf of occommodofion moy be higher fhon
prevenfive cosf of reducing emissions
0.5
- 0.5
0.0
50
0
- 50
-100
-150

0
-
m
i
l
l
i
o
n

k
m

2
H
C
m
m
1850 1900 1950 2000
Nortern emis5ere snow cover
Global average sea level
Global average surface tem5erature
Roadblocks to Sustainable Energy Technologies
Performonce: fossiI is cheoper
SusfoinobIe energy fechnoIogies ore in fheir infoncy.
They perform for beIow fheir uIfimofe pofenfioI.
Dromofic improvemenfs ore needed -
incremenfoI funing of fhe presenf sfofe of fhe orf
is nof sufficienf
8reokfhroughs needed
undersfond ond confroI moferioIs ond chemisfry
of moIecuIor ond nonoscoIe IeveIs
6
hat is Sustainability?
Losfs o Iong fime
OiI in I900
CooI in 0II
Does no horm
MucIeor eIecfricify: no CO

EfhonoI: reduced CO

Leoves no chonge
CIosed chemicoI cycIe
EIecfricify, hydrogen
Sustainable Next-Generation Energy Technologies
SusfoinobiIify ProfiIe
Iosfs o Iong fime
does no horm
Ieoves no chonge
SoIor eIecfricify: o fuIIy susfoinobIe energy choin
monufocfure ond end-of-Iife impocf musf be considered
breokfhroughs needed
Iower cosf, higher efficiency phofovoIfoics
fhird generofion moferioIs ond nonosfrucfures
eIecfricify sforoge
corbon dioxide
SusfoinobiIify ProfiIe
Iosfs o Iong fime
does no horm
Ieoves no chonge
depIefes cooI resource
I00s of yeors
Carbon Sequestration
~ I000 yeors
breokfhroughs needed
chemicoI reocfivify wifh rocks in exfreme environmenfs
migrofion fhrough porous rocks
geoIogic moniforing ond predicfive modeIing
Ieokoge roufes fo ofmosphere
emissions
sequesfrofion
Nuclear Electricity
spenf fueI
I0 000s yrs
SusfoinobiIify ProfiIe
Iosfs o Iong fime
does no horm
Ieoves no chonge
depIefes uronium resource
I00s of yrs
usgs
breokfhroughs needed
moferioIs for exfreme environmenfs
high femperofure, high rodiofion fIux
high corrosivify
geoIogic moniforing ond modeIing
nucIeor
wosfe
emissions
Replace Conventional Oil
ceIIuIosic biofueI: recycIes corbon dioxide
soIor fueI wifhouf bioIogy: fhermo- or phofo-chemisfry
oiI sonds ond shoIe, cooI fo Iiquid: b07 more corbon dioxide
more poIIufonfs
recycIes CO

ceIIuIosic biofueI
soIor chemicoI fueI
Iosfs o Iong fime
does no horm
Ieoves no chonge
oiI sonds ond shoIe
cooI fo Iiquid
Iosfs o Iong fime
does no horm
Ieoves no chonge
swifchgross
efhonoI pIonf
breokfhroughs needed
ceIIuIosic breokdown fo sugor or fueI
chemisfry of corbon dioxide fo fueI
Electrify Transportation
SusfoinobiIify ProfiIe
Iosfs o Iong fime
does no horm
Ieoves no chonge
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
e
-
H
2
H
2
O
O
2
tesla motors
renewobIe
eIecfricify
producfion
renewobIe
hydrogen
producfion
breokfhroughs needed
x-b higher energy densify in bofferies
cofoIysfs, membrones ond eIecfrodes in fueI ceIIs
eIecfric mofor
repIoces
gosoIine engine
boffery
fueI ceII
hydrogen
sforoge
Sustainable Energy Enabling Technologies: The Grid
breokfhroughs needed
Iong disfonce reIiobIe, efficienf deIivery of eIecfricify
Wind
Sun
Enabling Technologies: Storing Energy
breokfhroughs needed
x-b increose in boffery energy densify
xI0-0 increose fhrough chemicoI sforoge + fueI ceIIs
Energy/weighf
MJ/kg sysfem
E
n
e
r
g
y
/
v
o
I
u
m
e
M
J

/

L

s
y
s
f
e
m
0
0
10
20
30
10 20 30 0
Energy Sforoge Densify gasoline
batteries
su5er
ca5acitors
· Sfore infermiffenf soIor ond wind eIecfricify
· EIecfrify fronsporfofion wifh pIug-in hybrids ond eIecfric cors
bofferies:
30-b0x Iess energy densify
fhon gosoIine
beyond bofferies:
chemicoI sforoge + fueI ceIIs
~ eIecfricify
impossibIe dreom: xI0
improvemenf
etanol
combustion
eIecfricoI
sforoge
metanol
ydrogen
com5ounds
(target)
com5ressed
ydrogen gas
cemical
+
fuel cells
= electricity
eIecfro-chemicoI
sforoge
chemicoI
sforoge
gos CH
4
oiI CH

cooI CH
0.8
heof
usefuI
work
combusfion
commodify moferioIs
disposobIe fueIs
susfoinobIe energy requires confroIIing compIex,
funcfionoI, high fech moferioIs ond chemisfry
frodifionoI energy
sunIighf
wind
wofer
geofhermoI
biomoss
eIecfricify
biofueIs
soIor chemicoI
fueI
usefuI
work
direcf
conversion
susfoinobIe energy
The Transition to Sustainable Energy:
High Tech Materials and Chemistry
high fech moferioIs ond chemisfry
e.g., phofovoIfoics, eIecfrodes,
superconducfors, cofoIysfs
New Science: Controlling Complexity
nonoscience
compufer
modeIing
compIex
moferioIs
confroIIing
moferioIs ond chemisfries
in uIfro-smoII ond uIfro-fosf regimes
We ore of fhe down of o new ero
· buiId moferioIs wifh ofom-by-ofom chemicoI precision
· predicf behovior of moferioIs fhof hove nof been mode
· design new moferioIs ond chemisfries for specific fosks
breokfhroughs fo nexf-generofion
susfoinobIe energy fechnoIogies ore wifhin reoch
ArfificioI Iighf-gofhering ond reocfion cenfer compIex
odis et al, JACS 128, 1818 (2006)
Crabtree and Lewis, Solar Energy Conversion, Pysics Today 60(3), 37 (2007)
Complexity Equals Functionality
mony inferocfing degrees
of freedom
LeveIs of CompIexify
composifionoI
sfrucfuroI
funcfionoI unif
orchifecfuroI
connecfing
funcfionoI unifs
femporoI
connecfing
sequenfioI sfeps
synfhesis
chorocferi;ofion
fheory ond
modeIing
Iighf
energy
eIecfron
The Energy and Science Grand Challenges
nttp.//:c|ence.ene|gy.gcv/ce:/new:-cnc-|e:cu|ce:/|epc|t:/cc:|c-|e:ec|cn-neec:/
8ES/C cnc 8ES FepcrI:
- Secure Energy FuIure, 2002
- Hycrcgen Eccncmy, 2003
- Sc|cr Energy UIi|izcIicn, 2005
- SuperccncucIiviIy, 200ó
- Sc|ic-:IcIe LighIing, 200ó
- /cvcncec Nuc|ecr Energy Sy:Iem:, 200ó
- C|ecn cnc EfficienI CcmLu:Iicn cf Fue|:, 200ó
- E|ecIricc| Energy SIcrcge, 2007
- Gec:cience:: Fcci|iIcIing 21:I CenIury Energy
Sy:Iem:, 2007
- CcIc|y:i: fcr Energy, 2007
- McIeric|: Uncer ExIreme EnvircnmenI:, 2007
- DirecIing McIIer cnc Energy: Five Grcnc
Chc||enge: fcr Science cnc Ihe lmcgincIicn, 2007
- New Science fcr c Secure cnc Su:IcincL|e
Energy FuIure, 2008
- Science fcr Energy Iechnc|cgy, 2010
- CcmpuIcIicnc| McIeric|: Science: cnc Chemi:Iry, 2010
CcmpuIcIicnc| McIeric|: Science cnc Chemi:Iry, 2010
And Policy
economic
susfoinobiIify
environmenfoI
susfoinobiIify
energy
susfoinobiIify
o muIfidimensionoI, inferocfive choIIenge
hat Do e Need to Do?
PoIicy encouroge new fechnoIogies fhrough poIicy ond pIonning
· evoIuofe ond incenfivi;e fhe mosf suifobIe opfions
Educofe fhe nexf generofion for energy Iiferocy
· scienfisfs ond engineers
· reguIofors, governmenf officioIs, business peopIe, urbon pIonners
· privofe cifi;ens - fhe uIfimofe decision mokers
Peseorch ond DeveIop new more susfoinobIe fechnoIogies
· moferioIs ond chemisfry of greofer compIexify ond funcfionoIify
Enfrepreneuership susfoin o cuIfure of innovofion ond risk foking
· depIoy fechnoIogies fhrough smoII componies
Ihe wcr|c i: uncergcing cn hi:Icric Ircn:iIicn. GeI cn Lccrc.
Summer 2012
hIIp://:i:e.phy.uic.ecu
Ìntense immersion in energy and sustainability
Lectures, tours of energy and sustainability sites
Team "callenge 5roects¨ solving real-world 5roblems
Perspective
Energy is moking on hisforic fronsifion
fossiI fo oIfernofive, cIeon, susfoinobIe
The fronsifion wiII foke decodes
The boffIeneck for mony oIfernofive energy fechnoIogies
is bosic science undersfonding of moferioIs ond chemisfry
Embrocing fhe fronsifion requires
educofion - energy Iiferocy for decision mokers
reseorch ond deveIopmenf of new fechnoIogies
impIemenfofion fhrough poIicy, pIonning,
enfrepreneurship

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful