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# Unit - II Image Transforms

## Where x = discrete values = 0,1,2, .N-1

The sequence any N uniformly spaced samples from a corresponding continuous function
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## 1D-Discrete Fourier Transform pair:

DFT and Inverse DFT

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## The number of complex multiplications and additions in FFT N log2N .

Decomposition procedure FFT algorithm The reduction in proportionality from N2 to N log2N operations.

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FFT Algorithm

## Discrete Fourier Transform

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Number of operations

The number of complex multiplications and additions required to implement FFT Algorithm:

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Inverse FFT

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Implementation

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## 2-D Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT)

T(u,v) Forward Transformion of f(x) g(x,y,u,v) Forward Transform Kernel u = 0,1,.,N-1 v = 0,1,.,N-1

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Example

Forward kernel

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u,v = 0,1,2,,N-1

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Walsh Transform

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## Walsh Transform kernel are separable and symmetric:

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Modification of the successive doubling FFT algorithm for computing the fast Walsh transform

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## 1-D Inverse Hadamard Transform Kernel:

for x= 0,1,2,.,N-1

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## 1-D Forward DCT :

for u= 0,1,2,.,N-1

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## 1-D Inverse DCT

for x= 0,1,2,.,N-1

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## for x= 0,1,2,.,N-1 y= 0,1,2,.,N-1

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Haar Transform

Haar Transform based on Haar functions hk(z) Continuous and closed interval z [0, 1] for k = 0,1,2,,N-1 where N = 2n First step in generating Haar Transform, integer k decomposed uniquely k = 2p+ q 1 where N = 2n Where 0 p n-1 q= 0 or 1 for p = 0 1 q 2p for p 0

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Haar Functions:

and

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Slant Transform

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For N>1

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Example

## Slant matrix S4:

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Hotelling Transform

Developed based on stastical properties of vector representations Tool for Image processing (H.T. has several useful properties) Population of random vectors of the form:

The mean vector of the population: E{arg} expected value of the argument Subscript m associated with the population of x vectors

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## Cx & (x-mx) (x-mx)T matrices of order n x n

Element cii of Cx variance of xi ith componeny of the x vectors in the population Element cij of Cx covariance between elements xi and xj Matrix Cx real & symmetric If elements xi and xj are correlated, the covariance = 0 &

cij = cji = 0
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For M vector samples from the random population, The mean vector & covariance from the samples:

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