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Duez - Chapter 10 Motivation

Needs -> Drive -> |------------------\/ \/ BEHAVIOR-------Emotion /\ /\ Incentive-------------

COMPONENTS OF MOTIVATION: Motive - a stimulus that moves a person toward a behavior designed to achieve a specific goal. Need - a lack of something that one requires or desires. Drive - a force that pushes a person to act. Incentive - a force that pulls a person toward a particular behavior. Emotions - the states of the body and mind associated with feelings. Motivation may be… conscious ("I'll need a good grade, so I'll study") or unconscious (nibbling on food while you're studying).

A need or desire that energizes and directs behavior.

Early Motivation Theories Motivation is based on our instincts:
Behavior that is patterned throughout a species and is UNLEARNED.

Instinct Theory: One of the oldest theories comes from the field that we know today as evolutionary psychology. Following the ideas of Charles Darwin, this theory suggests that human behavior is driven by innate instinctual drives (unlearned) like those for some birds and fish. However, this theory soon revealed its limitations in that it could only describe the behavior of humans but not provide an explanation. Sea Turtles, upon being born on the beach, instinctively head directly to the sea.

Explains some animal behaviors
Explains some human behaviors Does not explain all human behaviors

Instinct Theory

Drive-Reduction Theory (Clark-Hull 1940s)
The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need. Hull stated that humans have innate biological needs (for example, thirst) and social needs (for example, love), and that drives compel us to satisfy our needs. The need is usually to maintain homeostasis.

We are not only pushed by our needs but.…
Pulled by our incentives: a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior

A person who realizes she is thirsty (a need) then feels an internal motivation (the drive) to find water to satisfy that need. Drive-Reduction Theory states that an organism will do whatever is necessary to reduce the unpleasant sensation.
Of course, humans often act counter to this. People will go on hunger strikes if they feel strongly about some cause. The motivation to not eat in this situation is greater than the biological motivation to eat.

Sometimes we do not seek homeostasis. Sometimes we seek arousal. Our needs go beyond reducing drives.
Stimulation is a primary need. Too much stimulation causes stress, so homeostatic processes are working here as well. Some people exhibit a drive towards highrisk situations that are uncomfortable without adrenaline rush. Others are content to watch and would feel uncomfortable if they were forced to engage in high-risk behaviors.

Arousal Theory

Video 6:00: "FLY GIRL" E:60 profiles Extreme Athlete / International Model: Roberta Mancino.

Cultivating Intrinsic Motivation

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

The Humanistic Theory:

Maslow proposed that humans have needs beyond those of survival and reducing drive tensions. The need to do something important with one's life is as essential as the basic biological needs. Lower level needs must be met first before one would move to higher levels and, eventually to selfactualization.
Finally, we may also be driven by intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. A boy who plays the violin for four hours a day simply to excel is driven by intrinsic motivation Those practice sessions are motivated by external rewards such as winning a competition or gaining admiration from his parents, then this is extrinsic motivation.

Achievement Motivation
A desire for significant accomplishments; for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for attaining a high standard.

Achievement Motivation
People who have LOW achievement motivation prefer very easy or very difficult tasks. People with HIGH achievement motivation prefer moderately difficult tasks.

Failure is unlikely - not embarrassing

Success is attainable yet attributable to their skill and effort.

Does high achievement motivation mean success in life?

Achievement Motivation

Leadership Style
Task Leadership: goal oriented leadership that sets standards and organizes work. Social Leadership: group oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict and offers support .
SOCIAL MOTIVATION. In the 1950s, psychologist David McClelland explored what motivated humans to challenge themselves, particularly in relation to others. He developed a theory called need for achievement in which he used experimental data based on participants' descriptions of ambiguous pictures to support his claims.

In longitudinal studies, McClelland found that subjects who scored high on tests of achievement were more likely to be entrepreneurs.
Other theories of social motivation claim that fear can be a very powerful motivator, with some humans being driven by a fear of failure while others are more afraid of success.

Sexual Drive: The pleasure that organisms derive from sex ensures that they will procreate, helping their species survive. Like hunger, it is a complex interaction involving chemistry, biology, and psychology.

Chemistry plays a role, the release of specific chemicals in the body triggers the emotions we associate with sex drive.
Cognition also plays an important role in mediating the sex drive. Just as cultural beliefs play a role in determining the foods one will eat or avoid, personal values and cultural customs are determining factors in when, how, and with whom one satisfies the sex drive. Although a primary need, sexual activity is also associated with higher needs in Maslow's hierarchy, such as belonging, avoidance of loneliness, and self-esteem.

Kinsey’s Studies
Confidential interviews with 18,000 people (early 1950’s). Most men and half of all women have premarital sex.
**Good Start- but major problems with his study: sampling, questions etc….

The Physiology of Sex
In the 1960’s William Masters and Virginia Johnson set out to explore the physiology of sex. 382 females and 312 males. Only people who were willing to have sex and display orgasm in a lab environment. Filmed more than 10,000 sex cycles.
Discovery of The Sexual Response Cycle (4 Stages) Excitement Phase Plateau Phase Orgasm Resolution Phase

The Psychology of Sex
People can find sexually explicit images either pleasing or disturbing- but they are none the less biologically arousing. Viewing erotic materials • changes ones attitudes to be more liberal about sexual practices. • may make some people dissatisfied with their own sexual interactions. • elevates the likelihood of overt sexual activity for a few hours immediately after the exposure.
Pheromones appear to be important in lower animals determinants of sexual desire in but of limited relevance to humans.

Adolescent Sexuality
Cultural Acceptance

About ½ of all high school kids in US report having sex- rates are higher in Western Europe but lower in Arab or Asian countries. Also change over time in the same culture: in 1900 3% of women reported having sex by 18. Now that number is around half.