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Job Analysis

Kelly Quirin Penn State University February 19, 2001

What is job analysis? How can you use this tool in your organization? Methods of job analysis How it works Real world example An exercise Summary

What is job analysis?

A systematic approach to collect information about a job such as tasks, responsibilities and the skills required to perform those tasks An important part of Human Resources (HR) planning

How can it be used in your organization?

Job analysis assists HR in determining:
Necessity of the job Equipment needed Skills required Supervision Working conditions Management/employee interaction

How can it be used in your organization?

Keyword searches on resumes that match job requirements

Selection Appraisal Salaries and Incentives Training and Development

The Multifaceted Nature of the Job Analysis

Labor Relations
Safety and Health



*DeCenzo and Robbins, p. 145

Job Analysis
Job Description

Strategic HR Planning Employee Training Employee Development

Performance Appraisal

Job Specifications
Career Development

How can it be used in your organization?

Job analysis can also:
Help the company remain profitable and competitive Help the company keep up with technology Prevent employees from being overworked Help the company stay in compliance with government regulations

Nuts and bolts

What is analyzed?
Work activities Working conditions
Supervisors Location Schedule

Machines and equipment

Nuts and bolts

What is analyzed? (cntd.)
Job performance
Operations Standards Time

Experience, training, and skills Supervision and promotion patterns Products/services completed

Nuts and Bolts

Who is involved in the job analysis?
Management Supervisors Job analysts Job incumbent Unions Consultants

Methods of Job Analysis

Observation Interview Questionnaires Diary Technical Conference Critical Incident Technique
PAQ Individual Group

Methods of Job Analysis

Observation Method
Analyst observes incumbent
Directly Videotape

Useful when job is fairly routine Workers may not perform to expectations

Methods of Job Analysis

Interview Method
Several workers are interviewed individually The answers are consolidated into a single job analysis

Employees are interviewed simultaneously Group conflict may cause this method to be ineffective

Methods of Job Analysis

Employees answer questions about the jobs tasks and responsibilities Each question is answered using a scale that rates the importance of each task

Methods of Job Analysis

Questionnaires (ctnd.)
Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)
A structured, behavioral questionnaire 194 items in 6 categories
Information input Mental processes Work output Relationships Job context Other characteristics

Methods of Job Analysis

Diary Method
Employees record information into diaries of their daily tasks
Record the time it takes to complete tasks

Must be over a period of several weeks or months

Methods of Job Analysis

Technical Conference Method
Uses experts to gather information about job characteristics

Methods of Job Analysis

Critical Incident Technique (CIT)
Takes past incidents of good and bad behavior Organizes incidents into categories that match the job they are related to

Involves 4 steps

Methods of Job Analysis

CIT steps
Brainstorm and create lists of dimensions of job behaviors List examples of effective and ineffective behavior for each dimension Form a group consensus on whether each incident is appropriately categorized Rate each incident according to its value to the company

How It Works
Conducting the job analysis
Know the purpose Gather Information about jobs to be analyzed
Books Charts Trade union literature Government agency literature

Use employee input

How It Works
Conducting the job analysis (ctnd.)
Choose an efficient method of collecting information Gather information from employee/supervisor about the job Draft a job description Obtain supervisor approval

A Real World Example

The Department of Labor
Job analyst uses observation and interview methods to gather information about an employee Information organized into 3 categories
Data People Things

A Real World Example

Work Functions Data 0. Synthesizing Coordinating Analyzing Compiling Computing People 0. Mentoring 1. Negotiating 2. Instructing 3. Supervision 4. Diverting Things 0. Setting up 1. Precision work 2. Operating 3. Driving 4. Manipulating


5. Persuading
6. Speaking 7. Serving

5. Tending
6. Feeding 7. Handling

*U.S. Department of Labor, Dictionary of Occupational Titles, 4th ed. Revised (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1991), p.xix.

8. Helping

A Real World Example

Job titles are listed in the
Each job is given a code
Ex. A recruiter might be assigned the code 2, 6, 7 if the job entails analyzing data (2), speaking to people (6), and handling different things (7)
See previous table

Dictionary of Occupational Titles

An Exercise
Bruce Spuhler, customer service manager at BGS Sports, wants to conduct a job analysis on how his employees interact with customers and other employees. What steps should Bruce take to implement a successful job analysis, and what method should he use to analyze his employees?

An Exercise
Possible Answer:
1. Determine the Purpose- to reinforce good behavior among employees and provide better customer service 2. Gather as much information as possible about retail and customer service, including past experiences with customers

An Exercise
3. Choose best method of job analysis -Critical Incident Technique -This would allow Bruce to discuss with his employees past incidents and whether they were effective or not -Assign values of effectiveness 4. Gather information from workers and other managers about the job

An Exercise
5. Draft a behavioral job description 6. Identify areas that need improvement, and implement training programs to improve those areas

Job analysis is an effective approach to gathering information about jobs There are 6 popular techniques to conducting job analyses Job analysis is directly related to nearly every function of Human Resource departments in organizations

Cascio, Wayne F. Managing Human Resources. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1992.
DeCenzo, David A. and Stephen P. Robbins. Human Resource Management. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1999. Gomez-Mejia, Luis R. and David B. Balkin. Managing Human Resources. Upper Saddle River: Prentice- Hall, Inc., 2001. U.S. Department of Labor. Dictionary of Occupational Titles, 4th ed. Revised (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1991), p. xix.