# POPULATION STUDIES

Theme 3: Population Structure

Lesson 1: Population Characteristics
Key Questions: 1. What are the key population characteristics we can use to describe population structure with? 2. How do we calculate them? 3. How do these relate to the standard of living in a country?

Fact File: Birth Rate
DEFINITION: The number of births per 1000 people per year
World Average China

(a) 7.9 (b) 15.6 (c) 20.3 (d) 41.7

(a) 6.4 (b) 12.3 (c) 22.4 (d) 42.6

Generally, the more developed a country, the lower the birth rate.

Fact File: Death Rate
DEFINITION: The number of deaths per 1000 people per year
World Average China

(a) 3.6 (b) 11.9 (c) 24.2 (d) 8.6

(a) 17.4 (b) 9.6 (c) 16.1 (d) 7.0

Generally, the more developed a country, the lower the death rate.

Fact File: Natural increase
DEFINITION: The difference between birth and death rates.
World Average China

(a) 11.7 (b) 88.0 (c) 7.3 (d) 21.9

(a) 2.6 (b) 11.0 (c) 5.3 (d) 37.5

Generally, the more developed a country, the lower the natural increase.

Fact File: Net Migration
DEFINITION: The difference between the number of people who arrive in and leave a country, per 1000 people World Average China

(a) 76.3 (b) 19.5 (c) 5.4 (d) 0

(a) 16.3 (b) 78.4 (c) -0.4 (d) 6.3

Generally, the more developed a country, the higher the net migration.

Fact File: Population Growth Rate
DEFINITION: The percentage increase in total population each year World Average China

(a) 2.3% (b) 1.2% (c) 3.9% (d) -0.4%

(a) 0.5% (b) 1.6% (c) -1.1% (d) 4.2%

Generally, the more developed a country, the lower the population growth.

Fact File: Life Expectancy
DEFINITION: The average age of death in a country World Average China

(a) 58.9 (b) 67.2 (c) 72.4 (d) 78.4

(a) 56.9 (b) 60.5 (c) 73.0 (d) 76.1

Generally, the more developed a country, the higher the life expectancy

Fact File: Median AGe
DEFINITION: The age at which there is an equal number of people above and below World Average China

(a) 28.4 (b) 31.5 (c) 36.1 (d) 40.1

(a) 23.4 (b) 28.2 (c) 30.6 (d) 35.2

Generally, the more developed a country, the higher the median age

Fact File: Dependency Ratio
DEFINITION: The number of dependents for each member of the working population World Average China

(a) 0.17 (b) 0.31 (c) 0.66 (d) 0.74

(a) 0.33 (b) 0.40 (c) 0.55 (d) 0.71

Generally, the more developed a country….the poorest AND richest countries have a high dependency ratio, and those in the middle have a low dependency ratio.

Fact File: Doubling Rate
DEFINITION: The average time in years it takes a population to double in size World Average China

(a) 31 (b) 45 (c) 61 (d) 112

(a) 60 (b) 80 (c) 100 (d) 140

Generally, the more developed a country the slower the doubling rate

Fact File: Sex Ratio
DEFINITION: The number of men for each woman in a country World Average China

(a) 0.90 (b) 0.98 (c) 1.00 (d) 1.01

(a) 0.90 (b) 0.99 (c) 1.06 (d) 1.09

Generally, the more developed a country …….no relationship!

Activity: Calculating Population Characteristics

1. Turn over your sheet. Calculate each characteristic using the information at the top

2. When you are done, complete this sentence: “Masseytown is probably a _________________ country because…..”

Masseytown Population Characteristics
Birth Rate:

9.13 births/1000 people

Death Rate:

5.12 deaths/1000 people

Natural Increase: 4.01/1000 people Net Migration: -1.70/1000 people

Population Growth Rate: 0.23%
Dependency Ratio: 0.66 Doubling Rate: 304 years Sex Ratio: 0.82

Activity: Basic Patterns
Undeveloped and/or very poor countries tend to have ________ birth rates and ________ death rates, and thus a _________ population growth. Life expectancy is usually ___________, and the dependency ratio is __________.

Semi-developed countries tend to have ________ birth rates and ________ death rates, and thus a _________ population growth. Life expectancy is usually ___________, and the dependency ratio is __________.

Older, developed and/or richer countries tend to have ________ birth rates and ________ death rates, and thus a _________ population growth. Life expectancy is usually ___________, and the dependency ratio is __________.

Lesson 2: Population Pyramids
Key Questions: What is a population pyramid? What does the China population pyramid look like? How does the shape of a population pyramid relate to population characteristics? How can you interpret population pyramids?

Activity: Basic Population Pyramid Shapes

1. On page 48 of the “Population Studies” textbook, copy the diagram at the top of the page showing the three basic shapes. Label it fully.

2. Take a copy of the population pyramid from China and glue it into your book. Which of the three pyramids you just sketched does it look most similar to? Complete this sentence and write it above the China population pyramid: “China has a ___________________ population”

How to interpret population pyramids
There main types of pyramids
– Rapid growth – Slow growth – Negative growth

Shape of rapid growth

Shape of Slow growth

Shape of negative growth

China has a mature population

POPULATION STRUCTURE

OLD DEPENDANTS

Population in Five Year Age bands

ECONOMICALLY ACTIVE YOUNG DEPENDANTS

MALES To the left

Usually, but not always, In % to make for easier comparisons between countries

FEMALES To the right

What Population Pyramids Show Us

KEY
slope of pyramid indicate the death rate width of the base is related to birth rate/fertility rate proportions of men and women can suggest male or female migrations height of graph can indicate life expectancy

"kinks" indicate dramatic reductions in birth rate or increases in death rate in the past

Soviet Union
WWI- 1914-1918 1,700,000 military dead December 1934 Stalin began a period of purging and terror that lasted until 1939 and was marked by the execution of virtually the entire political and military elite.

Cambodia
• April 17th, 1975 the Khmer Rouge, a communist guerrilla group led by Pol Pot, took power in Phnom Penh, the capital of Cambodia. During their rule, it is estimated that 2 million Cambodians died by starvation, torture or execution.

Activity 2: Interpreting Population Pyramids

Take a copy of Population Studies and turn to page 106.
Look at the population pyramids and then complete the activities 1 to 8 on page 107.

JAPAN 4a. There are a lot of people in the 15-24 age group, but much fewer in the 5-14 age group

6.1 million MALE 0-9 5.8 million FEMALE 0-9 6.5 million MALE 65-74 7.3 million FEMALE 65-74 SINGAPORE 3.3 million MALE 65-74 3.4 million FEMALE 65-74

4b. There has been a increase in the number of people in the 0-4 age group, when the 20-24 age group is becoming parents

22.3 million MALE 0-9 22.0 million FEMALE 0-9

PAKISTAN

Lesson 3: Explaining China’s Population Structure
Key Questions: What are seven factors that have influenced China’s population structure? What characteristics have been influenced by these factors and how? Do Now: What do these numbers represent for China? Sex ratio, Birth rate, Dependency ratio, Life Expectancy, Median age, Death rate

1.06 12.3 0.4 73 35.2 7.o

Which pyramid most closely matches China?

Describe TWO characteristics of the population structure of China, using this population pyramid as evidence.
Sex ratio, Median age, Life Expectancy, Birth rate, Death rate, Dependency ratio

Activity 1: Factors Influencing China’s Population 1. Take a copy of the question sheet. Using the textbook “Population Studies” and the following two slides, answer the questions.

2. Complete the table on the other side of the question sheet in your own words.

Goal: To be able to explain how (at least) TWO population characteristics have come to be in China in a paragraph. Example: China has a moderately low birth rate of 12.3 (compared to a world average of 20.3) because…….

Fact File: Great Chinese Famine
Occurred between 1958 and 1961, killing between 14 to 40 million people. The famine was the result of droughts, floods and poor planning in Chairman Mao’s “Great Leap Forward” In 1959, the Yellow River flooded and caused crop failure

In 1960, 60% of all agricultural land didn’t receive any rain at all.
New agricultural techniques, like close-planting of seeds, reduced the yields of crops, and millions of peasants were driven from their land to work in factories.

The current drought in China (2010-11) is the worst in 50 years. It has affected 35 million people, creating water shortages and killing crops. This will have a negative affect on the country’s birth rate.

Fact File: Health and Sanitation
Around 700 to 800 million people live in rural areas in China. In the northwest and western regions of China, standards of living have been traditionally low, with running water and transport still problems in the area. However, due to a five-year program by the Health Ministry and UNICEF, deaths in childbirth fell from 77.2 per 100,000 births in 2004, to 35.7 per 100,000 in 2009. Also, the infant mortality rate has dropped from 20.3 per 1000 babies to 14.1 per 1000 babies. This was achieved by providing medical equipment, better training, more child care workers and computer equipment.

HOMEWORK: Practice Paragraph 1. Sketch the rough shape of the Chinese population pyramid.

2. In a paragraph, describe TWO population characteristics visible in this graph and explain HOW they have come about. Use specific details in your answer.

Study Break – Fling the Teacher