Activity 23: Phylum Echinodermata

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS
 exclusively

marine  mostly mobile, slow-moving bottom dwellers  Coelom subdivided into:
 Perivisceral

cavity  Cavity of the ambulacral (hydrovascular) system

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS
 Most

exhibit pentamerous radial symmetry  Oral surface contains the mouth  Aboral region indicates the side away or opposite the mouth  (+) CaCO3 dermal endoskeleton
 (+)

thin epidermis or  (+) embedded in a thick, tough body wall  Project spines and tubercles

TAXONOMY
 SUBPHYLUM ASTEROZOA
 Class

Asteroidea  Class Ophiroidea
 SUBPHYLUM ECHINOZOA
 Class

Echinoidea  Class Holothuroidea
 SUBPHYLUM CRINOZOA
 Class

Crinoidea

SUBPHYLUM ASTEROZOA
 Includes

radially symmetrical, flattened echinoderms  Mostly star-shaped  Never stalked or attached to substratum  Body made up of central disk with radiall arranged arms  Mouth centrally located at oral side of the body

Class Asteroidea
 Sea

stars or star fishes  Typically pentamerous  (+) ambulacral grooves on the oral side
 With

tube feet that have suckers

 Anus

and madreporite on the aboral side  Many pedicellariae present in many of the species

Starfish Anatomy
ORAL SIDE Tube feet are visible

Dissection of Asterias rubens 1 - Ambulacral ossicles and ampullae. 2 - Madreporite. 3 - Stone canal. 4 - Pyloric caecae. 5 - Rectal glands. 6 - Gonads.

Aboral side

oral side

Asterias – Subphylum Asterozoa; Class Asteriodea

A. rubens feeding on mussel A. rubens aboral surface

Linckia – Subphylum Asterozoa; Class Asteriodea

L. columbiae

L. laevigata L. multiflora

Protoreaster – Subphylum Asterozoa; Class Asteriodea

Culcita (cushion star) – Subphylum Asterozoa; Class Asteriodea
Culcita novaguineae

Culcita novaguineae

Class Ophiuroidea
 Basket

stars and brittle stars  Typically pentamerous  With elongated and movable arms sharpl marked off from the central disk  Anbulacral grooves are closed and covered by ossicles  Tube feet devoid of suckers  (-) anus  (+) madreporite on the oral side

Gorgonocephalus (Basket star) – Subphylum Asterozoa; Class Ophioroidea

G. chilensis

Ophioplocus – Subphylum Asterozoa; Class Ophioroidea

O. esmarki Esmark’s brittle star

Ophiocoma – Subphylum Asterozoa; Class Ophioroidea

O. paucigranulata

Ophiocoma erinaceus

Ophioderma – Subphylum Asterozoa; Class Ophioroidea

Ophioderma longicaudum O. rubicundum

SUBPHYLUM ECHINOZOA
 Includes

globoid, discoid, more or less cylindrical echinoderms without arms.  (+) tube feet with suckers
 Restricted

to the compact body

 Never

stalked or attached to any substratum

Diadema (sea urchin) – Subphylum Echinozoa; Class Echinoidea

Echinocardium (heart urchin) – Subphylum Echinozoa; Class Echinoidea
E. cordatum

E. cordatum

Laganum (sea biscuit) – Subphylum Echinozoa; Class Echinoidea
L. depressum Lateral view

L. depressum

L. retinens

Arachnioides (true sand dollar) – Subphylum Echinozoa; Class Echinoidea

A. placenta A. placenta

The end. Thank you.