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Advanced Biology

Cellular Respiration
Energy Flow Light energy

ECOSYSTEM

 Energy flows into Photosynthesis


in chloroplasts
an ecosystem as CO2 + H2O
Organic + O2
molecules
sunlight and Cellular respiration
leaves as heat in mitochondria

ATP

powers most cellular work

Heat
energy
Cellular Respiration
 In cellular respiration the mitochondria break
down (reduce) glucose releasing its stored energy
and producing CO2 and H2O as wastes
 The energy is then stored in ATP molecules

C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy

Waste CO2 is Stored in ATP


Monosacchari Oxygen
de produced produced by used by
by plants plants during plants to
photosynthes make more
is sugars 6.1
Redox Reactions
 Redox reactions
– Transfer electrons from one reactant to
another by oxidation and reduction
 In oxidation
– A substance loses electrons, or is
oxidized
 In reduction
– A substance gains electrons, or is
reduced
6.2
Redox Reactions
 Examples of redox reactions:
becomes oxidized
(loses electron)

Na + Cl Na+ + Cl–
#1
becomes reduced
(gains electron)

becomes oxidized

#2 C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy

becomes reduced 6.2


Cellular Respiration NAD+
H
O
 Cellular respiration C NH2

oxidizes glucose in a N+ Nicotinamide


series of steps O CH2
O (oxidized form)
O P O –
 NAD+ accepts O H H
electrons from the O P O– HO OH NH2
oxidation of glucose O CH2HO
N N
H
 NADH is the reduced O
N N H

form of NAD+
H H
HO OH

6.3
Electron Transport Chains
From food via NADH

6.4
Uncontrolled Reaction Cellular Respiration
Making ATP
 Oxidative phosphorylation – ATP is
made as the result of an electron transport
chain

 Substrate-level phosphorylation – ATP


is made directly when an enzyme transfers
a P (phosphate) to ADP

6.5
Review
 What particles store the energy in
glucose?
 What molecule carries electrons?
 What molecule gains and stores the
energy from the electrons?
The Cell

Nucleus

Endoplasmic
Reticulum
Mitochondria

Golgi Apparatus

Cytoplasm

Cell Membrane
3 Phases of Cellular
Respiration
 Glycolysis
– Breaks down glucose into two molecules
of pyruvate
 The citric acid cycle
– Completes the breakdown of glucose
 Oxidative phosphorylation
– Is driven by the electron transport chain
– Generates ATP

6.6
3 Phases of Cellular
Respiration
Electrons Electrons carried
carried via NADH and
via NADH FADH2

Oxidative
Glycolysis Citric phosphorylation:
acid electron transport
Glucose Pyruvate cycle and
chemiosmosis

Mitochondrion

ATP ATP ATP

6.6
Glycolysis
 Occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell

 Means “splitting of sugar”

 Breaks down glucose into pyruvate


1 6-Carbon glucose

2 3-Carbon sugar 2 3-Carbon


6.7 pyruvates
Investment and
Payoff

 ATP is required as
activation energy
to begin the
reactions of
glucolysis

 ATP is then
produced in the
payoff phase along
with 2NADH

6.8
Glycolysis – In Detail
#1 – Two ATP are added
to glucose to produce
fructose 1,6-
bisphosphate

#2 – Fructose 1,6-
bisphosphate is split into
two molecules of
Glyceraldehyde 3-
Phosphate

#3 – The two G3P’s are


further oxidized producing
4 ATP (2 Net) and 2 NADH

#4 – G3P has now been


completely oxidized to
6.9
pyruvate
 Before the citric acid cycle can begin
pyruvate must first be converted to acetyl
CoA
CYTOSOL MITOCHONDRION

Acetyl
Pyruvate +
NAD+ NADH CoA
H+
O–
S CoA
2
C O
C O
C O
CH3
1 3
CH3
CO2 Coenzyme A

Transport
protein

3C 2C
6.10
CO2 NADH
The Citric Acid Cycle
 Products
from one
acetyl
CoA
– 3 NADH
– 1 ATP 2
– 1 FADH
2
– 2 CO

= ATP
6.11
Review
 How many carbons are left from 1
glucose at the beginning of the citric
acid cycle?
Electron Transport
 NADH and FADH 2
provide electrons
for the chain
 The electrons
transfer is
Electron
exergonic because
slide they lose energy at
each step
 Where does this
energy go?
6.12
6.12/6.13
Electron Transport

 Electrons from NADH and FADH are


passed to oxygen, forming water
 Electron transfer causes protein
complexes to pump H+ from the
mitochondrial matrix to the
intermembrane space
 The resulting H+ gradient
– Stores energy
– Drives chemiosmosis in ATP synthase
– Is referred to as a proton-motive force
The Yield
CYTOSOL Electron shuttles MITOCHONDRION
span membrane 2 NADH
or
2 FADH
 There are three main processes in this2 metabolic enterprise

2 NADH 2 NADH 6 NADH 2 FADH2

Glycolysis Oxidative
2 Citric phosphorylation:
2 Acetyl acid
Glucose Pyruvate electron transport
CoA cycle and
chemiosmosis

+ 2 ATP + 2 ATP + about 32 or 34 ATP


by substrate-level by substrate-level by oxidative phosphorylation, depending
phosphorylation phosphorylation on which shuttle transports electrons
from NADH in cytosol

About
Maximum per glucose:
36 or 38 ATP

6.14
Making ATP without Oxygen
 Cellular respiration
– Relies on oxygen to produce ATP using
the electron transport chain
 Fermentation
– Allows cells to produce ATP in the
absence of oxygen

6.15
Fermentation or
Respiration?
 Pyruvate is a key juncture in
catabolism Glucose

CYTOSOL

anaerobic Pyruvate
O2 present aerobic
No O2 present
Cellular respiration
Fermentation

Alcohol
MITOCHONDRION
Fermentatio
Ethanol Acetyl CoA
n
or
lactate
Citric
acid
Lactic Acid cycle
Fermentatio
n
2 ADP + 2 P1 2 ATP O–
C O

Glucose
C O  Lactic acid
Glycolysis
CH3 fermentation
2 Pyruvate
– Pyruvate is reduced,
2 NAD + 2 NADH 2 CO2
using NADH, to form
H H lactate as a waste
H C OH C O product
CH3 CH3
2 ADP + 2 P1 2 ATP
2 Ethanol 2 Acetaldehyde

Glucose Glycolysis O–

 Alcohol fermentation C O
C O
– Pyruvate is converted 2 NAD+ 2 NADH
O CH3
to ethanol in two steps, 2 Pyruvate
C O
one of which releases
H C OH
CO2
CH3
2 Lactate
6.16
Proteins Carbohydrates Fats  Glycolysis and the
citric acid cycle
Amino Sugars Glycerol Fatty
acids acids connect to many
other metabolic
Glycolysis
Glucose
pathways

Glyceraldehyde-3- P  These pathways


NH3 Pyruvate
funnel electrons
from many kinds of
Acetyl CoA organic molecules
into cellular
Citric
respiration
acid
cycle
 Organisms use
these organic
Oxidative
phosphorylation molecules to build 6.17
other substances or