CONSONANTS

I> Structure of the larynx & 4 different position of the glottis II> Definition of & differences among consonants III> Consonant sounds III.1> Plosives (stops) III.2> Fricatives III.3> Affricates III.4> Nasals III.5> Lateral III.6> Approximants

III.4> Nasals
III.4.1> Definition III.4.2> Classification III.4.3> Characteristics

III.4.1> Definition
 Nasals /m, n, 7/: the oral passage is completely closed (due to there is a complete closure of articulators e.g. two lips for /m/, the tip and the tooth ridge for /n/ and the tongue and the velum) and the air flow escapes through the nasal cavity.  Nasals and fricatives are also called continuants because they can be held so long as there is the air in the lungs to release through nasal cavity and oral cavity, respectively.

III.4.2> Classification
Bilabial /m/ Alveolar /n/ Velar / 7/

Voiced

Voiced

Voiced

Articulation of bilabial nasal stop

2 lips are pressed together Velum is lowered

Articulation of alveolar nasal stop
Tongue blade is pressed against alveolar ridge Velum is lowered

Articulation of velar nasal stop
 Back of tongue is against the soft palate/velum  Velum is lowered

III.4.3> Characteristics
/m,n/ can occur in all positions in a word, e.g.: meet, mammal, mom /7/ never occurs in initial position, only medially or at the end of a word, e.g.: English /17gl1~/, sing /s17/  /7/ never occurs after a long vowel or diphthong, only after /1 e ` ^ 4/

Pronunciation of –ng spelling - /7/: at final position of a morpheme, e.g.: long /l47/, hang /h`7/ - /7g/: in the middle of a morpheme, e.g.: anger /`7g6/; exception: comparative & superlative adjectives, e.g.: longer /l47g6/, longest /l47g6st/ /7/: phonetically simple but phonologically complex

/n/ can occur before a velar sound /k,g/ /7/ E.g.: bang / b`7 /, bank / b`7k/ Nasalization: final nasals nasalize the preceding vowels/diphthongs, e.g.: pin [phĩn ], time [thãim], sing [shĩ7]

III.5> Lateral III.5.1> Definition
 Lateral (liquid) /l/: produced by channeling the air on each side of the tongue, for which /l/ is called the lateral sound.  Is a sound “in which the passage of air through the mouth doesn’t go in the usual way along the center of the tongue; instead, there is a complete closure between the center of the tongue & the part of the roof of the mouth where contact is to be made…The only way for the air to escape is along the sides of the tongue” [Roach, 2000:61].

III.5.2> Classification
/l/: voiced, alveolar, lateral

III.5.3> Characteristics
Positions in a word: -initial: love -medial: killer -final: feel

Light/clear [l]: pronounced when the air passes over one or both side(s) of the tongue with the tongue tip touching the alveolar ridge, e.g. listen. Dark/velarized [ɫ]: formed by “the air passing the body of the tongue which is bunched up in the velar position” [CelceMurcia et al., 2002: 44], e.g. toll, bell.

-Clear /l/: before a vowel, with the front of the tongue raised raised toward the alveolar ridge, e.g.: like, link -Dark /l/: after a vowel, with the back of the tongue raised toward the velum & lips rounded

Clear and dark /l/ are allophones of the same phoneme /l/ in complementary distribution Devoiced /l/ -E.g.: clear, play  After /p,t,k/, at the beginning of a stressed syllable

III.6> Approximants III.6.1> Definition
Formed when “the air stream moves around the tongue and out the mouth in a relatively unobstructed manner” [CelceMurcia et al., 2002: 45] Is a sound in which the articulators approach each other but do not close to each other to produce a “complete” consonant such as a plosive, nasal or fricative.

/l/ and /r/ are “called liquids because, in pronunciation of these sounds, the air passes through the mouth in a somewhat fluid manner.” [Avery & Ehrlich, 1995: 22]

III.6.2> Classification: Approximants
Bilabial w Post-alveolar r Palatal j

Voiced

Voiced

Voiced

 The tongue tip approaches the alveolar area but never actually makes contact with any part of the roof of the mouth.  The air escapes through an opening down in the middle of the oral cavity  The lips are slightly rounded.  The tongue tip is slightly further back in the mouth then /t,d/

 2 lips approach each other

 Tongue tip approaches the palate

III.6.3>Characteristics
Retroflex /r/: the tongue is slightly curled backwards with the tip raised Voiceless & slightly fricative /r/: at the beginning of a syllable after /p,t,k/: print, tree, cream

Rhotic & non-rhotic /r/ - Rhotic: car /ka:r/, work /w3:rk/ occurs in final position (before a pause), & before a consonant (in American, Scottish, West of England accents) -Non-rhotic: red/red/, car /ka:/, work /w3:k/ Only occurs before a vowel; if after a vowel it is not pronounced

/j,w/: phonetically like vowels, but phonologically like consonants  semi-vowels/semi-consonants Devoiced /w,j/: slighltly fricatives after initial /p,t,k/, e.g.: pure /pj$6/, tune /tju:n/, queue /kju:/, twin /tw1n/, quick /kwik/ Group of semi-vowels: /h,w,j/

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