I> Definition
Clauses are “constructions with one phrase constituent, typically a noun phrase that bears the subject relation, and another constituent, the verb phrase, bearing the predicate relation [Jacobs, 1995:49]”. The distinctive feature of clauses is that they have a subject-predicate structure. E.g.: The cat is running down the ladder Subject Predicate

II> Structure
Clauses are composed of phrases. In English there are 7 basic clause types:

1. Subject + verb (SV)  The baby cried 2. Subject + verb + adjunct (SVA)  A doctor lives in that house 3. Subject + verb + complement (SVC)  That sounds a great idea 4. Subject + verb + object (SVO)  He missed the bus 5. Subject+verb+object+adjunct (SVOA)  He sent the letter to Paris 6. Subject+verb+object+object (SVOO)  They have given her a surprise 7. Subject+verb+object+complement (SVOC)  We always consider him our elder brother.

 Type 1 is an intransitive clause type. (the verb refers to an action carried out by the subject doesn‟t affect anybody or anything else)  Type 2 may also be regarded as intransitive. (the verbs involved take an obligatory adjunct of place, position, or direction,…)  Type 3 is the intensive clause type. (the complement and subject are in an intensive relation: subject & complement are not distinct entities but refer to the same „thing‟)

Type 4 is a transitive clause type. (=mono-transitive, having only 1 object) Type 5 is a transitive type. (with an obligatory adjunct of place, manner, or extent,.. in addition to an object) Type 6 is the di-transitive clause type. (has 2 objects: direct & indirect objects) Type 7 is the complex-transitive clause type. (a complex of an object & a complement follows the verb)

Exercise 18, page 33
1. The old fellow(S:NP) forgot about(V:VP) Jim(O:NP) yesterday(A:NP). Type 5. 2. I(S:NP) wouldn‟t make(V:VP) rice (O:NP) in that saucepan(A:PrepP). Type 5. 3. Your Madras curry(S:NP) smells(V:VP) appetizing(C:AdjP). Type 3. 4. You(S:NP) may not deposit (V:VP) your boots(O:NP) on top of mine(A:PrepP). Type 5. 5. They(S:NP) rolled(V:VP) the barrel(O:NP) into the courtyard(A:PrepP). Type 5`. 6. You(S:NP) must not walk(V:VP) on the grass(A:PrepP). Type 2.

7. They(S:NP) consider(V:P) poor old Andrei(O:NP) insane(C:AdjP). Type 7. 8. Barry(S:NP) sent(V:VP) Mary(IO:NP) a bunch of carnation(DO:NP). Type 6. 9. Your luggage(S:NP) weighs(V:VP) seventy kilos(A:NP). Type 2. 10. The children(S:NP) played(V:VP) in the garden(A:PrepP) all yesterday afternoon(A:NP). Type 1.

III> Classification & functions III.1> Independent/Coordinating clauses

An independent clause “does not depend on another clause, although it may be linked to another independent clause, or to a dependent clause.” [Richards, Platt & Weber, 1987:77] E.g.: David washed the dishes. David washed the dishes, and Mary cleaned the floor. David washed the dishes before Mary came home.

III.2> Dependent/Subordinating clauses

A dependent clause is “a clause which must be used with another clause to from a complete grammatical construction. It depends on the other clause and is subordinate to it” [Richards, Platt and Weber, 1987:77] E.g.: The man reported that he himself witnessed the robbery Dependent clause

Dependent clauses may be either finite or non-finite. 3 broad categories of dependent clauses: nominal clauses, relative clauses, and adverbial clauses.

III.2.1> Nominal clauses

Nominal clauses function in the same place as noun phrases. Noun phrases function as subject of a clause, object of a clause, or a complement of a clause. 4 types of nominal clauses: 2 finite & 2 non-finite.

Finite nominal clauses
“A finite dependent clause contains a verb phrase which is marked for tense and modality. There is regularly a subject except under conditions of ellipsis. Finite dependent clauses are regularly marked by a clause link…” [Biber et al, 1999:193] Finite dependent clauses may be either subordinate or embedded. They include that clause and wh-clause.

That clause
- are introduced by the conjunction that. - may function as either subject, object or complement. E.g.:That people throw away money on gambling never ceases to amaze me. SUBJECT Sally believes that roses are the best gift to girls. DIRECT OBJECT The possibility is that he was hit in the accident. SUBJECT COMPLEMENT We entertained a suspicion that Mink had been cheating COMPLEMENT OF NOUN He was hopeful that a change would occur COMPLEMENT OF ADJ

-When a that clause functions as subject, it is normally the case that a dummy it functions in subject position, and the that clause is extraposed. E.g.: It never ceases to amaze me that people throw away money on gambling (=That people throw away money on gambling never ceases to amaze me)

-are introduced by who, when, where, how, why, whether, if. -2 kinds: indirect question or nominal relative clause.  Indirect questions are relatable to direct questions. E.g.: I wonder whether he loves me may be related to Does he love me? She told us what the news was about is related to What was the news about?  Nominal relative clause: What might happen next surprised me (=That which happened) -function as subject, object, complement, e.g. What you had done did not bother us; I like what you have done; The matter is what we will do

 2 kinds: to-infinitive & bare infinitive. E.g.I require them to be present in my office at 9 She saw him walk down the stairs few minutes ago.  may function as subject & complement. E.g.: To live is to eat S SC -as complement of noun, modifier, or complement of adjective His offer to buy the whole lot was accepted CN (Complement of noun-a word group that behaves like a direct of the verb corresponding to the noun) I know the man to answer this question Post-nominal modifier He was hesitant to see her Complement of adjective

Non-finite nominal clause Infinitive clause

Most commonly, function as object or as part of the object. E.g.: They told us to arrive soon. IO DO I want her to post the letter. O (“to post the letter”-part of the object)

Participle clauses
- participle clauses, mainly with present participle or gerund, can function as subject, object or part of the object, and complement. E.g.: Seeing is believing S SC Monkeys like eating bananas DO The zookeeper found the elephant munching peanuts Part of the object

III.2.2> Relative clauses - function as post nominal modifiers - are linked to the head of the noun phrase by means of a relative pronoun. E.g.: The man whom I met last night was very handsome 2 factors can help to determine the form of the relative pronoun.

 (1) The head noun (the antecedent) is personal (who) or non-personal (which). Who is used for antecedents that refer to persons; which for antecedents referring to other than persons.  (2) the function syntactically of the relative pronoun within the relative clause: genitive (whose), subject (who, which), object of the verb or of the preposition (whom, which) E.g.: The man whom we visited yesterday is the former president The girl whose mother is a famous doctor is studying in our class

 The words when, where, why, etc are also used as relative pronouns, but only after the suitable head nouns like the time when…, the house where…, the reason why…  These noun phrases are often reduced by omitting the head noun. E.g.: The time (when) I arrived was predicted The house (where) I was born is now destroyed The reason (why) she left him is understood.

- are identified by conjunctions which “join” the adverbial clause to the main clause - function as adjunct - can include:  Clauses of condition: Are introduced by if, unless, in case (that), in the event (that), whether or not, even if, only if, providing (that), provided (that) E.g.: If the weather is fine, we’ll go swimming. We hired a substitute for the night in case you felt too ill  Clauses of comparison: Are introduced by than, or as…as. E.g.: Jane looks more beautiful than Mary does. He works as efficiently as I do.

III.2.3> Adverbial clauses

 Clauses of reason: Are introduced by because, since, as, now that E.g.: Since we have won $1,000,000, we can go traveling to many places Now that the semester is over, I’m going to rest a few days and then take a trip (‘Now that’ is used for present causes of present or future situations)  Clauses of contrast: Are introduced by though, although, even though. E.g.: Although she is wealthy, she is not arrogant. I still love him though he has nothing now.  Clauses of purpose: Are introduced by so that, in order that. E.g.: The students are learning hard so that they can get the best results.

Clauses of result: Are introduced by so…that E.g.: The movie was so exciting that everyone stayed till the end to watch it. Clauses of time: Are introduced by when. E.g.: She always sings loudly when she gets out of bed. Clauses of place: Are introduced by where. E.g.: He likes going where he is not allowed to Clauses of manner: Are introduced by how. E.g.: He always knows how he can do the job.

Exercise 19, page 36 (Analyzing English)
1. That people throw away money on gambling (S:that-cl) never (A:adv P) ceases (V:VP) to amaze me (O: inf cl) 2. I (S:NP) cannot imagine (V:VP) how the mistake could have happened (O:wh-cl) 3. He (S:NP) doesn‟t seem (V:VP) to suffer much (C:inf cl) 4. You (S:NP) cannot order (V:VP) me (IO:NP) to jump into the river (DO:inf-cl) 5. I (S:NP) think (V:VP) that you will catch him stealing the apples (O:that-cl) 6. They (S:NP) reported (V:VP) to the police (Oi:prep P) what the prisoner had said (Od:wh-cl) 7. It (dummy) disappointed (V:VP) the candidate (O:NP) that few people came to hear him (S:that-cl) 8. We (S:NP) don‟t know (V:VP) who will be his successor (O:wh-cl)

Exercise 20, page 39

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